Stroke Tips & Drills~1

Whether you’re a lap-swimmer, a former competitive swimmer, an injured runner, a
cross-training enthusiast or just someone looking for a fun, total-body exercise routine, you can learn modern stroke technique and become a better swimmer. If it’s been years, maybe decades, since your last swim lesson, you may be surprised to learn how much swimming technique has changed if you have children enrolled in a swim program, they’re probably learning to swim in a way that is vastly different from the way you were taught. Sometimes it’s easier to start fresh than to try to unlearn your old habits.
有時候,去重新開始(學習新的) ,會比試著去改掉舊習慣來的容易。
Good technique is what enables the better swimmers at your pool to whisk by you with apparently little effort. Even if some of them have lost their physiques over the years, they haven’t lost the technique they honed as younger, competitive swimmers.
好的泳技,就是能使一些較優秀的泳士,借由很少的努力(力氣)就能在他們的泳池裡飛速馳騁。一些競賽型選手,即使幾年後他們失去了他們的身材(身材變形) ,但他們卻不會失去在他們年輕時磨練出來的泳技。

How We Learn 我們如何學習
As with most sports, swimming is tougher to master than it looks. Your perception of how you swim is often very different from how you really do swim. Most adults overestimate their swimming speed, not to mention their swimming skills. Have a friend or lifeguard videotape you in the pool sometime, and you’ll see what we mean. The truth can be painful, but it’s very educational.
We learn through observation , imitation, instruction and even pretend play. As adults, our egos often get in the way of the learning process when we think everyone is watching us. Here’s a tip: No one is watching you, unless they’ve read other chapters in this book! You are free to experiment and explore the world of swimming with childlike curiosity. 5
我們透過觀察、模仿、教學,甚至伴演遊戲玩耍來學習。當我們(一般成人)想到大家都在看我時,我們的自我常阻礙我們學習的進程。這裡有個要訣:沒有人會去看你,除非他們有讀過這本書的其它章節。全然自由的去經驗、探索這游泳的世界罷! 用你童真的好奇心。

Determining Your Skill Level 檢定你的泳技程度
In the fictional world of Garrison Keillor’s “Lake Woebegone,” everyone would be an above-average swimmer. But in the real world, where some of you are new to the pool and others have been swimming your whole lives, we have to make some distinctions to make this book as useful as possible.
在 Garrison Keillor ”悲傷之湖” 的虛幻世界裡,每個人都是頂尖的游泳高手。但是在真實的世界裡,有些是才剛開始接近泳池,有些則是視游泳為家常便飯了。我們必須做一些區別,讓這本書儘可能對大家都有幫助。
Consider yourself a novice swimmer if you’ve never been coached, if you’ve been swimming for less than two years, or if it takes you 26 or more (freestyle) arm strokes to cover a 25-yard pool length. Consider yourself an intermediate swimmer if you’ve had little or no coaching but have been swimming regularly for two to five years, or if you can complete a length of a 25-yard pool in 22 to 25 arm strokes. Consider yourself an advanced swimmer if you come from a competitive swimming background or take fewer than 22 strokes to cover 25 yard.
認定自己是個高程度的泳士:如果你是來自一個競賽游泳背景,或25公尺捷泳的划次低於22下。(註: 一碼約一公尺)
How Efficient Are You in the Water? 在水中的你有效率嗎?
If you’re an adult swimmer taking more than 22 strokes per length of a standard 25-yard pool, it might be worth taking a closer look at your technique. As with mastering a tennis stroke, a golf stroke or a baseball batting stroke, mastering a swimming stroke takes patience and practice. You must isolate the unique demands on your arms, shoulders, hands, hips feet and legs, before you can put them all together into a single fluid motion. Good stroke technique results from two things: minimizing drag and maximizing propulsion.

Minimizing Drag 減少阻力
Practicing “push and glides” off the wall will teach your body to pierce the water like an arrow. You must first learn the “streamline position.” The concept of streamlining will surface throughout this book.
練習 ”蹬牆出發,然後滑行”,將可以訓練你的身體如弓箭一樣穿水而行。你首先必須學會 “流線形的體位”。流線形這個概念將會一直出現在本書中。
Stand with your arms extended in front of you, both palms turned down. Place one palm directly over the back of your other hand and align your fingers, hooking the thumb of your top hand around the pinkie side of your bottom hand. With your hand joined together (one on top of the other), raise them over your head. Stand on your tiptoes and reach as high as you can. As you stretch, squeeze your elbows in, so your biceps brush against your ears. Remember this streamlined position. It will come in handy throughout this book.
你的雙臂向前方伸直,掌心向下,一隻掌心疊在另一隻手掌背上,手指頭伸直,上方手掌的拇指勾住下方手掌的小指,讓你的雙手合在一起(一隻手疊在另一隻上面) ,抬起雙手到頭頂,用腳尖站立,儘可能往上拉高自己。當你在伸展時,雙肘互相緊靠,你的二頭肌能碰到你的耳朵。記住這個流線形體位,它會時常出現在這本書上。

Maximizing Propulsion (Forward movement) 增加推進力(向前運動)
Stop and glide after each stroke with one arm fully extended in front of you and the opposite arm resting at your side. Make a mental snapshot of this position as you glide for six kicks. Then take another stroke and stop again, gliding with the other arm extended in front of you. Kick six more times. Take another stroke and so on. Continue pausing with one arm extended in front of you and the other one at your side, changing arms each time, remember to push all the way back on each stroke, touching your thigh, then relax your arm. Stopping your arm at this point may feel awkward, but keep practicing.
每次划水後停止,然後滑行,一隻手臂向前完全的伸展,相對的另一隻手則放鬆在體側。當你滑行做六拍打水時,對這個體位做心靈快照(把這個動作記在心裡) 。然後再划另一次水,停止,一隻手臂向前方廷伸同時滑行,六拍或更快速打水。再做另一次划水,如此繼續持續這個中止狀態:一隻手臂向前延伸另一隻手在體側,再交換手臂。記住每次划水向後,手要碰到你的大腿,然後放鬆手臂。把手臂停在這個點上,可能會覺得笨拙,但是持續練習。

Basic Stroke Foundation基礎划水的建立
As mentioned above, to move forward in the water you need to increase your forward propulsion while minimizing the amount of body surface that comes in contact with the water, causing drag. The most important source of propulsion is your kick. That’s right, your kick. This may seem odd since it looks like your arms are doing most of the work. But without an efficient kick, your legs will drag through the water like anchors and hold you back immensely.
Watch the better swimmers look at your pool and notice how effortlessly they seem to kick. Then look at the slower swimmers at your pool. See how they thrash in the water? Ankle flexibility, not brute leg strength, is primarily what determines the effectiveness of your kick.
觀察那些在你的泳游池裡游的比較好的泳客,注意他們的踢水是如何輕鬆、毫不費力。然後再注意那些在泳池內游的比較慢的泳客,看他們在中水如何拼命亂踢。靈活有彈性的腳踝(不是強壯小腿的踢力) ,是決定你有效率踢水的根本主因。
Practice pointing your toes as you kick. By kicking with fins when you swim, or by sitting on your insteps on a comfortable rug at home, you can increase your ankle flexibility and eventually your kicking speed. (See below.)
one of the secrets to swimming efficiently is knowing how to relax. Good swimmers seem to go farther and faster in the water, with less effort than novice swimmers. Why? Because they’re comfortable in the water. They extend their bodies fully to get ???.. most out of each stroke.

Kicking Skills 踢水技巧
While the kick is not directly responsible for propelling you forward, it’s pretty tough to swim well without kicking well. If you don’t believe it, try this little exercise: in a safe environment, swim a few laps with your ankles bound together so you cannot kick freely. You can use surgical tubing or a small inner tube to hold your ankles together. what happens? Chances are your legs swerve madly from side to side and then sink toward the bottom of the pool as though they had weights attached. Try the exercise again. See how difficult it is to swim in a straight line when you can’t kick?

Kicking: A Closer Look 踢水:最後一瞥
Kicking propels you in two directions: forward and upward. The forward component is of minimal value to non-competitive swimmers, but the upward component, or lift, is what allows you to hydroplane on top of the water, giving you speed. You kick also helps you counterbalance your arm stroke. What happened when you wrapped the band around your legs? You zig-zagged like an eel. Unless you have a perfect stroke with high elbow recovery and zero lateral movement, you need to kick just to maintain a straight line in the pool.
You’re probably seen novice swimmers at your pool whose legs appear to be scissoring when they kick. The problem is in their arms, however, not their legs. Next time you’re at your pool, watch how their arms cross past the midline of their bodies. Their legs have no choice but to counterbalance their arm stroke by scissoring. If they didn’t do so, they’d sink or swim in circles. You might want to share this insight with them (politely).

Checking Your ankle Flex: The Toe Point Test 檢側你腳踝的靈活屈度:腳尖測試
Ankle flexibility is the key ingredient to kicking speed and thus, successful swimming. If you are able to point your toes, your feet will act like fins in the water. If you can’t point your toes – are you listening, runners, cyclists and triathletes? – your feet will act like anchors.
腳踝的靈活度是踢速和完美泳姿的關鍵要素。如果你能夠把重點放在腳尖,你的腳在水中就能像魚鰭一樣。如果你不把重點放在腳尖――你有沒有在聽,跑步的,騎腳踏車的,玩三鐵的?――你的腳就會像錨一樣(把你拖住並往下沉) 。
You can measure your ankle flexibility with a ruler. Sit on the floor with your legs extended in front of you and your heels resting on the floor. Point your toes as far as you can without causing pain (or have a friend press down gently on your toes.) Measure the distance from the floor to your toes. If your toes are within two inches of the floor, you should have a decent kick. If your toes are two to four inches from the floor, that’s fair. If you measure four to seven inches or more from the floor, your ankles are very tight, and you probably find it very difficult to kick with a kickboard. Many runners, cyclists, weight lifters and aerobics enthusiasts fall into the latter category. (See stretching exercise below.)
你可以用這個方法測量腳踝的靈活度:坐在地板上,兩腿向前伸直,後腳跟靠在地板上,腳趾盡可能向遠處伸長,但不要引起疼痛(或請朋友幫忙輕輕的往下壓) ,然後測量你的腳尖到地板的距離。如果你的腳趾離地兩吋以內,你應該會有一個很不錯的踢水;如果在2~4吋之間,那是正常的;如果是在4~7吋或超過,你的腳踝就太緊了,你可能會發現你用浮板打水會很困難。很多跑者、腳踏車騎士、舉重者和熱愛有氧運動者,都落在最後一項(在4~7吋之間) 。

Ankle Flex Exercises腳踝柔軟運動
1. Have a partner press down on your feet as you sit with legs extended.
2. Sitting on the floor, tuck the tops of your feet under a sofa. Slowly scoot back in the floor. Try to extend your legs fully. Be careful not to exert too much pressure on your Achilles tendon (behind the ankle area).
3. While sitting on a chair, dangle your feet and curl the tops of your toes to the floor. Press down.
4. Practice swimming with training fins on, especially when you kick.
1. 當你坐著時,雙腳前伸,有位同伴幫忙把你的腳盤往下壓。
2. 坐在地板上,把腳尖插到沙發椅下面,身體慢慢往後移,試著把你的腿整個打直。但是要小心不要太用力,避免壓迫到位於腳踝後側的阿基里斯鍵。
3. 坐在椅子上,把腳懸住,讓腳背指頭碰到地面,然後往下壓按。
4. 游泳時用蛙鞋練習,尤其是踢水的時候。

Head-Up Kicking Drill 抬頭踢水訓練
“Head-up” kicking will teach you proper body position – elevating the hips and chest to reduce resistance – and help you develop a strong kick. Clasp your hands together, arms fully extended in front of you, with your head out of the water. Inhale by lifting your chin straight ahead. Don’t forget to keep kicking when you breathe. The head-up kicking drill will come in handy when we discuss open-water swimming later.