18.12.09

三鐵選手在游泳項目要勝出的第一選擇 — 捷泳


速度是很多比賽論定輸贏的標準,鐵人三項無疑的就是競速型的比賽。想在競速型的比賽得到好成績,那麼如何在最短的時間內逹到最遠的距離,就成了選手們訓練的目標。
三鐵選手在比賽游泳選用捷泳的優勢有兩個
第一,在游泳四式中,捷泳的速度最快。
第二,在四式中,捷泳用到腿的比例比其它三式都少,這也就是捷泳省力的地方。在游泳運動的過程中,過度的使用腿打水是非常耗能的,除非短程衝刺,否則腳打水主要目地是保持身體的平衡和漂浮,前進速度的快慢關鍵則在於划手。三鐵中其它兩個項目:腳踏車和跑步用到腿的百分比都在百分之90以上,如果游泳時能減少腿的疲累,把節省下來的力量用到其它兩項,這是最有效率方法。
而且,在水中不當的用力,對速度並不一定有正面的加分,反而只會浪費力氣。
所以,優秀如你的三鐵選手,如果你不是用捷泳參加三鐵比賽,是否該考慮好好再訓練自己的捷泳。

15.12.09

再談自由式翻滾轉身

video

這是水藍天泳池一位游泳高手(源源), 自由式翻滾轉身轉的示範動作.

25.11.09

自由式轉身要點


Step1: Complete last stroke into turn, both hands finish at the hips.
完成最後一次划手進入轉身時,雙手放於身體兩側靠近臀部(有如立正的姿勢).
Step2: Drop the head, roll into a tuck position and dolphin kick to lift the hips.
點頭收下巴, 讓身形進入一個捲曲的狀態, 蝶一下腰抬高臀部.
Step3: Stay in a tuck position as the legs rotate out of the water.
當雙腿因滾動出水面時, 身形仍停留在捲曲的狀態.
Step4: The feet hit the wall and the hands stay together.
雙腳蹬牆, 雙手要併合在一起.
(兩隻手應同時舉起向前方伸直,避免兩手張開,各自擺動.)
Step5: Push off in a streamlined position with the body on its side.
側身蹬牆出發後, 身體要保持在側面的流線形體位.
Step6: short glide off the wall as the body rotates to the front.
做一個短暫的漂浮滑行,直到側身轉成正向.

16.10.09

計算游泳划次要注意的事


A few words about counting strokes. There are two ways of doing it. One: maintain a reasonable time, no matter how few strokes. Or Two: do absolutely anything, glide like mad, catch-up, whatever, and notice the time difference.
在計算划次時, 有兩件事要注意:
第一: 不論划次減到多少, 每游一趟的時間, 要維持在合理的秒數(不要為了減少划次而故意拖長漂浮的時間, 因而產生龜速的情況)
第二: 完全專注於滑行、等待的手和節奏的變化。

Some possible drills: 一些可能的練習方法
Fly. Kick, no board, arms at body's side. Think: kick head down, kick head up. Don't rush the kick. It begins at the chest and unfurls quite slowly with a snap of the ankles, like cracking a whip. If your timing is good on the whole stroke, this will be very easy. If it's difficult to do, probably your timing is off. Within a fraction of a second, the sequence of entry is head, hands, feet. The second kick is half way through the stroke.
捷泳: 打水不用浮板, 雙手放在體側, 仔細的思考--頭放下打水和抬頭打水. 打水時不要急燥, 它開始是從胸部慢慢展開, 來帶動腳板抓水, 很像快速的甩動鞭子. 如果整個划水的過程, 時間點(節奏)掌握的夠好的話, 游起來就會很輕鬆. 如果做起來很困難, 可能就是節奏抓不好. 整個划水的順序是頭, 手, 腳. 第二次打水要在划水動做進時到一半時開始(這裡應該是講兩拍式打水).
Back. Swim with exaggerated roll and glide on your side, one arm outstretched and one at your side for about 6 to 9 kicks.
仰式: 用很跨大的滾動成側面然後滑行的方式游, 一隻手伸直出水面, 一隻放在體側, 腳踼水6到9次, 再滾向另一側, 重復練習.
Breast. Kick twice, pull once for a length; then kick once and pull twice. Swim using fly kick.
蛙式: 一趟蛙腳踢水, 兩次划手一次; 然後踢水一次, 划手兩次; 最後蛙手蝶腰.
Free. One-arm, catch-up (hand touches outstretched hand before you pull), ripple (drag your fingers in the water, directly below your elbow, during recovery), hesitation (leave your hand out of the water behind you for a second before beginning recovery.
捷泳:
1. 單臂划水練習
2. catch-up: 划水的手來到前方碰觸到前伸的手後, 才開使下一次划水
3. 水漣漪練習: 划手高肘出手面後指尖要碰到水面, 然後一直劃過水面到前方,再進行第二次划手.
4. 遲疑練習: 划手高肘出水面, 停兩秒鐘, 再向前伸展, 進行下一次划手.

3.8.09

蝶泳技巧解析

Butterfly 蝶泳
The Stroke
Like a snappy flip turn, a well-done butterfly stroke is something that will turn heads at your pool. It’s the perfect blend of power and grace, the sign of a confident – and highly fit – swimmer. Unlike the alternating motion of the freestyle or backstroke, butterfly requires both arms to move simultaneously overhead, which requires great stamina and flexibility.
就像一個漂亮的翻滾轉身,一個出色的蝶泳,會讓人把頭轉向泳池中的你(吸引大家的目光)。它是力與美的完美結合,是一個充滿自信和高品質健泳者的標誌。它不像自由式和仰式是一種輪替的運作,蝶泳要求雙臂同時做越過頭部的運動,這需要強大的耐力和靈活度。
A butterflier’s classic double-arm recovery motion is set up by the kick, however, not the arms. The kick, sometimes called the “dolphin kick,” is what gets your body into a high, comfortable position in the water so you can propel yourself down the pool without causing immediate fatigue.
蝶泳者經典的雙臂復原動作是建立在蝶腰打水,而不是手臂。蝶腰打水有時稱為『海豚打水』,它可以讓你的身體在水中浮的較高和得到較舒適的位置,所以你的身體在泳池中可以完全的推進,不會立刻產生疲憊。
As with the other swim strokes, the butterfly follows the standard catch-pull-recovery sequence. Now that you’re bit more familiar with it, we’ll take a closer look at body position, arm motion, leg and hip motion, breathing, and then some tips on putting it all together.
和其它三式相同,蝶泳練習也該跟著『抓---推水----復原』連續動作的標準流程。現在你對它應該有多一點的認識,我們將更仔細的的來看身體的體位,手臂的移動,腿和臀部的運作,換氣呼吸,和一些游蝶式全泳時的訣竅。
Body Position 身體體位
As with the breaststroke, you do the butterfly in a streamlined prone position with your arms and legs extended at the beginning of your stroke cycle. Your head should be forward with the water at eyebrow level. Your hips and shoulders should be high above the water and parallel to its surface.
和蛙泳一樣,蝶泳一開始是一個俯伏的雙臂和和雙腿都伸直的流線型體位。你的頭應該稍微抬出水面,眉線以上露出水面。你的臀部和肩膀應該高出水面,而且平行水面。
Arm Motion手臂動作
Your arms should move in tandem, with each one sculling underwater in an S-shaped pattern. As with other swim strokes, you’ll want to keep your elbows higher than your hands for maximum leverage. But since your body doesn’t rotate as in freestyle or backstroke, your under water pull in the butterfly is shallower, and your overwater recovery is wider and lower.
你的手臂應該像雙輪車軸一樣的滾動,手臂在水中做S型的圖案的划水。就像其它式的划水一樣,為了最大的槓桿效率,你要保持手肘高於手掌。但是因為你的身體不像自由式和仰式一樣的滾動,所以蝶式在水中的推水較淺,而出水的復原動作較寬和較低(沈) 。
The butterfly arm motion can be broken into four stages: the catch, the pull (phase 1 and phase 2), and the recovery.
蝶泳的手臂動作可拆成四個階段:抓水,推水(階段1,階段2),和復原。
The catch 抓水
Your hands should enter the water together, shoulder-width apart. Your elbows should be up and your thumbs should be down, as in freestyle. Slide your hands forward, then outward and downward at a 30- to 45-degree angle from the water’s surface. Position your hands about four to eight inches below the water’s surface to get a good hold on the water. Because of the timing of your kick, you’ll only have a brief window of opportunity to execute your catch.
你的雙手應該分開約『肩膀的寬度』且同時進入水中,你的肘在上,手拇指在下,就像自由式一樣(高肘) 。你的手掌向前滑行,然後向外向下在水面30到45度的角度之間入水,入水後,將你的手固定在水面下四到八吋處,以獲得一個較好的抓水點。因為要配合蝶腰打水的節奏,你只有很簡短的時機來執行你的抓水動作。
The Pull: Phase1 推水:第一階段
Move both arms simultaneously in an out-down-back motion, bending your elbows slightly and rotating your arms from the shoulders. At the end of Phase 1, your forearms should be vertical, and your palms should face back toward your feet, no wider than shoulder-width apart.
雙臂同時向外向下向後划動,肘稍微彎曲,滾動你的肩膀來帶動手臂。在第一階段結束,你的前臂應該直立的(垂直水面),你的掌心應該向後朝著腿的方向,兩臂開度不要超過肩膀寬度。
The Pull: Phase2 推水:第二階段
Now you’re ready for the acceleration, or power, phase of your pull. Bring your hands together under your stomach so your elbows bend at a 90-degree angle. Then force your hands outward and back toward your feet. Continue forcing water behind you until your arms are almost fully extended and your hands are at a point just past your hips. Since this is where your shoulders begin to emerge from the water, it’s an ideal time to breathe.
現在這個階段是你準備推水加速前進。你的肘彎曲90度的角度,把你的雙手帶到腹部下方。然後你的手掌用力向外向後朝腿的方向推水,繼續將水往後推直到你的手臂幾乎完全伸直,你的手剛好經過臀部的地方。此時是你的肩膀開始浮出水面,此刻剛好一個理想的換氣時間。
The Recovery 恢復
As your hands emerge from the water, swing them around to your sides and then in front of you. Your elbows should be higher than your hands and your fingers should just be skimming the water’s surface. When you start your recovery, your hands should trail behind and your elbows should lead your arm swing. Halfway through your recovery, your hands should take over the lead as your forearms extend in front of you just prior to your catch. During the initial phase of your recovery, your arms should be relaxed, but they should move quickly, using the power generated by your upper back and shoulders in acceleration phase of the pull.
當你的手從水中抬起,繞著你的體側將雙手擺到前方。手肘應該高於手掌,手指應該剛好劃過水面。當你開始要回復到划手前動作(流線型) ,用雙肘主導手臂的擺動,你的小手臂應該放鬆順勢拖在後頭。當到復原動作的一半時,你的手掌要接管成為主導,引導你的前臂向前延伸直到你下一次抓水前的動作。在你復原動作的初期,你的手臂應該放鬆,但它們應該快速移動。你加速推水的這個階段,是使用你的上背和肩膀所產生動力。
Leg and Hip Motion 腿和臀部的運動
The kick accounts for at least on-third of your power in the butterfly stroke, so it must be carefully coordinated with your arm motion, breathing and body motion.
蝶腰打水在蝶泳中至少佔1/3的動力,所以一定要很小心的去協調手臂、換氣和身體的動作。
The dolphin kick – a wavelike two-beat kick in which your legs move up and down in tandem – is designed to push still columns of water behind you quickly and forcefully. During the downbeat, thrust your hips upward so your buttocks can break the water’s surface. During the upbeat of the kick, thrust your hips downward. This is what will give you the powerful, undulating motion that gets your entire body into the stroke, not just your limbs.
海豚打水 --- 兩拍式的雙腿如波浪上下起伏打水-- 這種設計是為了要快速又強有力的將靜止的水柱推向你的後頭。向下打水時,是把臀部推向上,所以此時屁股會跑出水面。向上打水的時候,要把臀部往下推。這就是蝶泳的動力來源,波浪式的運動會迫使你用全身來游蝶泳,而不是只用四肢. 。
TIP Keeping your feet point on the downbeat of your kick will help you direct water backward, not downward, and will help you sustain the undulation that began in your hips.
要訣:把雙腳著重在往下踢水那次,這可以幫你直接將水推往後推,不是往下踢,這也可以幫忙支撐住開始要做波浪起伏的臀部。

Butterfly Breathing 蝶泳換氣
Head Position 頭部位置
Keep your face shallow in the water at all times. Novices usually push their heads down in an effort to raise their hips and legs. This reduces their ability to generate power by pushing their shoulders down, and it forces them to rise back up in order to breathe. The resulting up-and-down motion impedes forward movement. Instead, the hips should be raised to transfer weight to the chest area.
保持臉部始終都淺沈在水面下。初學者經常藉由壓低他們頭來抬高他們的臀部和雙腿。這會縮減我們肩膀向下推動所產生的動力的能力,而且也必需強迫支撐身體上揚以便換氣。上下擺動的結果阻礙了向前的運動。替代的方法是,臀部應該上昇去轉換重力到胸部的位置。
TIP to integrate breathing into your butterfly motion, inhale at the completion of your arm stroke, so your mouth clears the water as your arms recover. To put the whole stroke together, swim in the following sequence: catch-and-kick, pull-and-kick, inhale-and-recover, catch-and-kick, pull-and-kick, inhale-and-recover.
把換氣和蝶泳動作結為一體,吸氣是在手臂完成向後推水的同時,所以當你換完氣你的手臂也擺到前方成為復原(流線型)的動作。現在做蝶式全泳練習,跟隨以下連續的動作做練習:抓水-踢水,推水-踢水,吸氣-復原(流線型),抓水-踢水,推水-踢水,吸氣-流線型。

蛙泳技巧解析

Breaststroke蛙式
The Stroke 划水
The breaststroke has several benefits for fitness swimmers: It’s an excellent way to vary the challenge and pace of a workout, the leg motion is terrific for toning your inner and outer thighs, and the arm motion is great for toning your chest muscles.
蛙泳對增進泳者的健康有多種助益:對於多變化的挑戰和達到逐步的功效它是一個相當出色的方法;踢腿的動作對調整大腿的內外肌群有相當大的功效;手臂的動作可以大大的強化胸部的肌群。
Contrary to how it might look, breaststrokers do not move their arms and legs simultaneously when they swim. Rather, they pull, inhale, kick and glide, although there is some overlap between the elements. There should be a clear distinction between the kick and pull. As with other swim strokes, it’s a good idea to break down the breaststroke into its component parts before trying to put it all together.
蛙式和它看起來可能是如何,正好相反。蛙泳者游蛙式時手腳不會同時擺動。儘管在一些基本動作之間有些重疊的地方,蛙泳的順序通常是抱水,吸氣,踢腳,滑行(漂浮)。蛙式划手和踢腳之間應該要有很清楚的區隔,一如練習其它三式的划水一樣,再試著游蛙式全泳之前,先將蛙式動作分解拆開,個別練習,這會是一個好方法。
Arm Motion 手部的動作
Imagine your hands tracing a heart-shaped Valentine in the water, beginning and ending with your arms extended in front of you, just below the water’s surface. During the pull, your arms should trace a smooth, outward, downward curve followed by an accelerated, sharper upward movement that brings your hands together beneath your chest. In the recovery, your arms should shoot straight forward, returning to your starting position.
想像你的手在水中追隨著情人節時的心形軌跡運作,划手的開始和結束你的手臂都要向前打直伸展,而且剛好就只在水面下方。手臂划動的軌跡應該是平滑向外,向下劃弧,緊接著加速切角向上移動,把你的雙手帶到胸前。還原時,你的手臂應該筆直射向前方,回到你的初始體位。
Leg Motion 腿部的動作
Most fitness and competitive swimmers prefer the newer, narrower “whip kick” to the old-fashioned “frog kick.” Bend your knees-not more than hip-width apart – and bring your heels together near your buttocks. Simultaneously flex your feet and turn your toes outward so your lower legs form a V. then whip your lower legs down, around and together in an outward, backward semi-circle, finishing with your knees straight and your toes pointed. This circular back-ward motion is the main propulsive force behind the kick.
大部份的健泳型或競速型泳客比較喜歡較新的、窄角度的『鞭笞踢法』,而不是己過時的『青蛙踢法』。屈膝開腳的的寬度不要超過臀部,把腳踝帶向你的臀部。同時彎曲你的膝蓋,腳板轉向外,讓你的小腿成為一個V字型,然後像甩鞭一樣,甩動你的小腿向下環繞,一起向外向後劃半圓,結束後你的膝打直,腳趾伸直,這個向後的半圓動作是踢水後的主要推進力量。
Body Position 身體的體位
Prone and streamlined. At the beginning and end of your stroke, extend your arms in front of you with your hands together, four to eight inches below the water’s surface. Your palms and thumbs should be angled slightly downward. Straighten your legs behind you, keeping your hips and feet just below the water’s surface. Your hips should be undulating visibly during the stroke cycle.
俯伏和流線型。在蛙泳划水的開始和結束時,雙手一起手臂向前伸展,約在水面下四到八吋。你的手掌和拇指應該有點輕微向下的角度。你的腿向後伸直,讓你的臀部、膝剛好在水面下。你的臀部在整個蛙泳動作的循環中應該有明顯的波浪起伏。
Breaststroke Breathing 蛙式呼吸
Head Position 頭部的位置
Hold your head still, with your eyes fixed at a point on the water just in front of your hands. Keep your chin locked and slightly tucked.
固定你的頭部不動,你的眼睛鎖定在水面上一點剛好是你手的前方。固定下巴不動稍微內斂。
Timing 時間點
Two common breaststroke errors are breathing too early in your stroke, which robs your pull of its power, and lifting your chin to breathe. Instead, keep your face in the water as your hands press down and outside the shoulders, then breathe as your hands reverse direction and sweep inward again.
蛙泳兩個普遍的錯誤就是過早換氣,這會劫掠你推進力的動能,還會造成抬高下巴呼吸。保持你的臉在水中,當你的手下壓,向外開至肩膀時,然後換氣,這個時間點和你的手再次轉向,向內抱水時同時。
TIP Breathe by lifting your torso rather than just your chin. As your hands sweep inward, your arm action should lift your shoulders out of the water. Inhale as your body clears the water. Fully extend your hands before your face goes back under.
藉由抬起你的身體來換氣,而不是只是抬你的下巴。當你的手向內抱水,你手臂的動作應該抬起你的肩膀出水面,當你的身體出離水面後吸氣。在你的臉回到水中以前,完全伸展你的手。
Breaststroke Coordination蛙式的協調
The correct sequence should be: Pull, inhale, kick and glide. Bend your knees to begin your kick at a pint just after you’ve inhaled, with your arms under your chest. Then, as your arms begin their recovery, your knees should be bent to their fullest – some breaststrokers have enough flexibility to touch their heels to their buttocks. Your legs should supply at least 50 percent of your propulsion in the breaststroke.
正確的連續動作應該是:抱水,吸氣,踢水,滑行。在你換氣時,你的手臂在你的胸前,之後彎曲你的膝蓋開始踢水。然後當你的手臂開始前伸復原,你的膝應該完成彎曲----有些蛙泳者有很好的柔軟度,讓他們的腳踝可以碰觸到他們的臀部。在蛙泳的過程中,你的腿應該至少要提供50%推進力。

仰泳技巧解析

Backstroke仰式
The stroke 划水
The backstroke is not so much swum on the back as it is on the side. Accomplished backstrokers have the ability to rotate power-fully and rhythmically from one side to the other. They spend as little time as possible flat on their backs – where the water’s resistance is greatest – and as much time as possible on their sides, where they minimize the amount of body surface that must push through the water.
仰式並不是用背躺著游,大部份都是側身游。要游好泳式必須具備這樣的能力:能夠強而有力又有節奏的將身體從一側向另一側滾動。他們儘可能的不要花太多時間讓背部平躺在水上,因為平躺水上的水阻最大—而且儘可能要側身,這樣可以減少身體穿過水中的總表面積。
By rotating your body at the beginning of each (back) stroke, your hand can enter the water at a deeper level than it could if you remained flat on your back. The deeper your hand, the more powerful a fulcrum you’ll have to push water behind you.
Your head position is the key to controlling what the rest of your body does in the backstroke. Your head is the only thing that should never move in backstroke.
利用身體的滾動來開始每次的划手。側身可以使你的手更深入水中比你的背平躺在水上。你的手伸入手中越深,你划水向後的支點將更有力量。在仰式中,你頭部的位置是控制你身體其它部份的關建。在游仰式時,你的頭是唯一不能亂動的部位。
Backstroke Breathing仰式換氣
Head Position頭部位置
Point your nose skyward at all times. Find a point on the ceiling and keep your eyes focused on it as you swim. This will remind you to keep your head still. Your chin should be slightly tucked, as though your head were resting on a small pillow.
注意你的鼻子始終都要朝上。在天花板上找到一點,當你游仰式時你的眼睛要專注在那個點,這將可以提醒你固定你的頭部。你的下巴應該輕微的向內收歛,就好像你的頭躺在一個小枕頭上。
Timing 時間點
There is a breathing rhythm for the backstroke, although most novice swimmers hold their breath to avoid swallowing water when inhaling. Try swimming easily on your back, inhaling on one arm recovery and exhaling on the other. Do this for one breath on each stroke cycle. When swimming harder, inhale as one arm exits the water and exhale as it re-enters. This will give you two breaths on each stroke.
仰泳換氣是有節奏的,儘管大多數的新手在仰式吸氣時,只注意到避免吃到水。試著平躺放鬆的游,當手臂划完水在體側放鬆時吸氣,換另一隻手臂放鬆時則吐氣,這個練習是划水一次換氣一次。當你游的很辛苦時,一隻手離開水面時吸氣進入水中時吐氣,這是划水一次換氣兩次的練習。
Tip To remind yourself not to hold your breath, avoid pursing your lips or puffing your cheeks. Just relax and keep your face slack.
To make the backstroke motion second nature, you’ll need to mix in drills frequently with your “straight” swims. Alternate one length of drills (see below) with one length of straight swimming.
要訣: 提醒自己不要閉氣,避免噘起嘴唇或鼓脹臉頰,只要放鬆,讓你的臉放輕鬆。讓仰式成為你的第二本能活動,在重覆的直線游泳練習時,你會需要仰式一起混著練習。練習一段距離後再互相轉換的直線練習(看下文)
Drills for Learning the Backstroke Body Position學習仰式身體體位的練習
Barbecue Skewer Drill 串燒練習
Start by lying on your back and flutter kicking with your arms resting on your sides. As you kick, roll one shoulder up toward your chin. Hold it there briefly, return to the neutral position and then roll the other shoulder up toward your chin. Fight the urge to take a stroke. During each rotation, your whole body – from shoulder to toes – should rotate on the same axis, perpendicular to the water’s surface, as if on a barbecue skewer. Your head should remain still throughout this drill.
開始時平躺水面上,雙手放鬆體側,用雙腳打水。打水時,滾動一個肩膀向上對著下巴,簡單的保持這個動作,再回到平躺水面的體位,然後轉動另一個肩膀向上對著下巴,要抑制想划手的念頭。在每個轉動中,你的全身----從肩膀到腳指---都應該在同一條中軸上轉動,剛好垂直水面,就好像是串燒一樣。在整個練習中你的頭都要固定不動。
Hold the side-lying position briefly on each rotation. Once you’re comfortable with the feeling of controlled body rotation, practice it with the arm stroke included.
每次滾動只要簡單的保持側躺的體位。一旦你覺得你可以很自在的控制身體的滾動,再把划手加進來練習。
TIP Flutter kicking on your back while wearing training fins will teach you to keep your hips elevated for better body position and a stronger kick.
要訣:穿蛙鞋練習踢水,將訓練你保持臀部的上昇,而獲得一個較好的體位。而且可以鍛練出強壯有力的踢水。
Six-Six Drill 六拍練習
Start by lying on your back with your legs extended and toes pointed. Flutter kick on your side for six kicks (or three counts), with your bottom arm extended overhead and your top shoulder touching your chin. Your head should remain fixed with your nose pointing toward the ceiling – try to keep your eyes focused on the same spot on the ceiling. After six kicks, take a stroke, recover fully and then briskly roll to your other side. Repeat this stroke-recover-roll sequence with a side-lying pause between strokes. The idea is to reduce the pause gradually until you’re swimming in a nearly normal rhythm.
先平躺在水上,你的腿和腳趾要平伸。轉側身六拍打水,在水下的手臂過頭向前平伸,你在水面上的肩膀碰到你的下巴。你的頭應該固定不動,鼻子向著天花板,你的眼睛試著注視天花板上的同一點。六次踢水後,做一次划手,回到平躺體位,然後在伶俐輕快地滾動身體向另一側,重覆這划手—復原—滾動的連續動作。在每次划手之間側躺停止一會兒,這個目的是要慢慢減少停止的時間,直到你幾乎可以抓到正常的節奏游泳。
When rolling from side. Imagine that your body is rotating on a single straight-line axis that runs from the top of your head to the bottom of your spine.
當滾向另一側時,想像你的身體在一條單一的直線中軸上,這中軸從你的頭頂延伸到你的脊柱底部。
Drills for Learning the Backstroke Arm Stroke 仰式手臂划水練習
To understand how to incorporate your arms into the backstroke, imagine that you could reach down about two feet below the water’s surface and grab a convenient handle for leverage. This handle would allow you to pull your body past your hand (rather than pull your hand past your body).
去了解手臂在仰泳中是如何和其它動作組合運作,想像你的手可以伸到水面下兩吋,抓到一個輕便的槓桿把手,這個把手可以讓你將你的身體推過你的手掌(而不是手掌推水過身體) 。
Single-Arm Drill 單臂練習
This drill utilizes the same rotating kick position as the barbecue Skewer Drill (see page 14). With your left arm resting at your side, stroke a length of the pool with your right arm only. On the next length switch arms so you’re stroking only with your left. At the completion of each pull, make sure the shoulder on your stroking arm is touching your chin. Count your single-arm strokes per length-aim for 10 to 14 if you’re in a standard 25-yard pool.
這個練習和串燒練習相同,同樣是利用轉動踢水的體位。你的左臂在體側放鬆,只划動你的右臂,練習一個泳池的距離,回程時轉換成左臂,只用左臂划水。在每次推水完成後,確定你划手的那個肩膀有接觸到你的下巴。如果你是在標準的25公尺泳池,計算你的單臂划次約在10 到14 次。

捷泳技巧解析

The Stroke 划水的方法
The Catch 抓水
The freestyle stroke begins here, with your hand reaching forward and slicing into the water. Your elbow should be up (and remain higher than your hand throughout the stroke). Your hand and forearm should enter the water at a 30- to 45-degree angle. Keep your hands relaxed thumbs down and palms facing outward. Then extend your arm into the water fully. Your hand should be four to eight inches below the water’s surface before you begin the first phase of the pull.
捷泳划水從你的手掌伸向前方,然後切入水中開始。你的手肘應該要高舉(在整個划水的過程中,手肘的高度都要保持比手掌高) 。你的手掌和前臂應該在30到45度的角度入水,手掌放鬆、拇指朝下、掌心向外。進入水中後完全伸展你的手臂。在你開始做第一階段抓水以前,你的手掌應該在水面下4到8吋。
The Entry 入水點
Your arm should enter the water in front of your shoulder, so the bubbles just miss your ear. If your arms come in closer to the centerline of your body, you may be swinging your hips out to the side, causing extra drag and impinging on the muscles and tendons in your shoulder. A wider entry can cause your entire arm to drag forward through the water.
你的手臂應該在你的肩膀前方入水,這樣入水激起的水花才不會濺到你的耳朵。如果你的水臂太接近身體中線入水,你的臀部可能會向兩側搖擺,這會產生額外的阻力,也會沖撞到你肩膀肌肉和肌腱。如果入水點太寬了,將使得你整個手臂在水裡緩慢而費力的行進.
Your fingertips should enter first, followed by your hand, forearm, elbow, triceps and shoulder, all entering through the same “hole.” Imagine that you are putting your arm into a coat sleeve – everything goes down into the same tube, to slip into that tube, your elbow has to be bent and held high. Don’t force your arm into the coat sleeve. Relax and let your arm’s own weight pull it down. Great swimmers always look relaxed in the water because they are relaxed.
你的指尖應該第一個進入水中,再來是你的手掌、前臂、手肘、三頭肌、然後肩膀,而且都要穿過同一個『洞』。想像要把你的手穿進外套袖子―每個部位都要進入同一根管子,而且是滑進去,在此之前你的手肘必須是彎曲而且保持最高點。不要用蠻力把你的手臂穿進外套袖子裡(好像在說譯者我)。放鬆,讓你的手臂用它本身的重量將它自己帶進去。一個好的泳者在水中看起來總是很放鬆,因為他們就是很放鬆。
The Pull 推水
Your underwater pull is best described by changes in the direction of your hand sweep. The down-sweep begins after your catch, with your wrist flexed at a 45-degree angle and your hand facing out-ward. This motion is a down and outward pattern that maintains a high elbow position. As your hand passes laterally, your body should be rolling toward your opposite side to assist in the out-sweep. Once your hand passes outside your shoulder – i.e. at its deepest point – it should change direction to face inward, backward and slightly upward toward the midline of your body.
你在水中的推進力的最佳描述就是:在水中不斷改變你的手掌控水的方向。在你手掌抓水之後就開始水中推水,你的手腕向內彎曲45度角,你的掌心向外。推水是個手掌向下和朝外移動而且保持高肘姿勢的狀態。當你的手掌在通過體側時,你的身體應該朝對稱的一側滾動來幫助你向外推水。一旦你的手掌經過你肩膀的外側 -- 也就是指尖在划水的最深點 ---你的手掌應該改變方向,掌心向內、向後、稍微向上朝向身體中線。
The pull phase of your stroke should not be dominated by elbow extension, but rather by body roll coupled with the upward motion of your slightly flexed elbow.
整個推水的過程不應該是利用手肘的伸展來控制,而是藉由身體的滾動配合肘部輕微收縮的向上運動來完成。
The Recovery 回復原狀
As you lift your arm out of the water, increase the bend in your elbow. Continue keeping your elbow higher than your hand, and lead the arm swing forward with your elbow. Point your fingers backward and allow them to trail behind until you are midway through your recovery. At this point your fingers should take over the lead. Your hand should enter the water at a 30- to 45-degree angle, thumbs facing downward, to begin again with the catch.
掌你的手臂抬出水面,要增加你的手肘的彎曲度。持續保持肘部高於手掌,用你的肘部引導你的手臂擺動向前。在要回復到開始划水前的整個過程中,注意手指向後,讓它們放鬆拖著在後頭,直到要恢復到開始划水動作的中途。這時的重點是你的手指要接手成為引導的位置,你的手掌入水要在30~45度角,拇指向下,然後開始再一次的抓水。
Freestyle Breathing 捷泳的換氣
Head Position 頭部的位置
Between inhalations, hold your head so the waterline is at mid-forehead level. Exhale easily but steadily from your nose and mouth. When turning your head to breathe, maintain a straight line between the top of your head and the base of your spine.
在吸氣的時候,固定住你的頭,讓吃水線是在你前額的中間水平線,用你的口鼻輕鬆但平穩的吐氣。當你轉頭換氣時,你的脊椎和頭頂要保持一條直線。
Timing 換氣的時間點
Your shoulder should roll up and back when you stroke. When breathing on your stroking side, simply follow your shoulder back with your chin. Inhale as soon as your mouth clears the water. Your body should already be rolling back to the other side. Your chin will lead your shoulder as your face returns to the water.
當你划水時,你的肩膀應該向上和向後滾動。當你向划手的一側換氣時,只要簡單的讓下巴跟著肩膀向後轉動轉出水面即可。你一旦吐淨嘴巴內的水,空氣就會自然吸入。你的身體應該己轉回另一側。你的下巴將引導你的肩膀就像引導你的臉轉回水中一樣。
TIP Bilateral breathing, often called alternate-side breathing, requires you to change breathing sides after each stroke cycle. This skill eliminates neck and shoulder fatigue and promotes better balance and body alignment. Bilateral breathing is an essential navigational skill in open water, too.
要訣: 兩邊換氣通常稱為兩側輪替換氣。要求你在每做完一次划水循環時,改另一側換氣。這個技巧可以消除肩、頸的疲勞,提昇更佳的平衡和身體的直線性。兩邊換氣在開放水域也是很必要的游泳技巧。
Freestyle Drills 捷泳練習
Like many people who want to swim faster, you may be tempted to increase your arm turnover in an effort to increase your speed. Sounds logical. But when you look over at the fastest swimmers at your pool, they seem to be moving their arms slower than you are, not faster. What’s going on here?
就像其他想游的更快的人一樣,你可能會很想努力的加快你手臂的輪轉來增加你的速度,聽起來很合羅輯。但是當你仔細的觀察在泳池中游的最快的泳客,他們划動他們手臂好像比你的還要慢,而不是比較快。這是怎麼一回事?
The secret to faster swimming lies not in making your stroke faster, but in making it longer. Single-arm drills are a great way for swimmers, especially uncoached swimmers, to increase the length and efficiency of their stroke.
游快的密祕不在於加快划速,而是加長划距。單臂練習對於泳者尤其是未受訓練的泳客會是很好的方法。它可以用來訓練增加划水的長度(划距)和效能。
By stroking with only one arm at a time, you can examine each part of your stroke sequence in minute detail. This will allow you to uncover technique flaws as well as strength imbalances between your left and right sides.
經由每一次只做單臂划手,你可以檢測你在每分鐘內,划手連續動作中的每個部份的細節。這可以讓你看清楚你划技的缺失,以及發現左右划手所產生的不平均力道。
Single-Arm Drills單臂划水練習
When doing single-arm drills, begin your pull by flexing your wrist and digging down for the bottom of the pool. If you are using your right arm, you will breathe on your right side. When? As your right hand finishes its stroke at your thigh. You should be looking at a point between the 12 o’clock and 2 o’clock positions when breathing on your right side and between the 10 o’clock and 12o’clock positions when breathing on your left side. By learning to limit your head turn, you will keep your body in a more fluid position and waste a lot less energy. (See illustrations on page 12.)
在你彎曲手腕向池底挖水推進時,開始做單臂划手訓練。如果你練習右手,就用右邊換氣。什麼時候換氣呢?當你的右掌完成划水動作來到你的大腿時。當你右邊換氣時你的視線要注視在12點和2點鐘之間的位置,左邊換氣時則注視在10點和12點鐘間的位置。藉由限制頭部的轉動,你將可以保持身體在更流暢的體位,也較不會浪費力氣。
Count the number of strokes you take per length of the pool. If you take fewer strokes with one arm than you do with the other, you’ve uncovered a strength imbalance. You’ll want to spend more of your drill time on your “ weak” side than your “strong” side.
在每趟划水練習時都要數划手次數。如果你有一隻手臂的划次比另一隻手臂少,你就會發現兩臂划手力道不平均,你就要花較多的時間練習”較弱” 的那隻手臂。
Variations 變化練習
In addition to the one lap left /one lap right single-arm drill sequence, you can do three strokes right/three strokes left, followed by two right/two left, one right/one left, then back up the “ladder.” You also can alternate between right- and left-arm strokes with a momentary pause in between. This is known as catch-up swimming, a staple of many competitive swim programs. (picture single-arm drill)
除了單臂左邊(或單臂右邊)持續練習外,也可以右臂划三次,換左臂划三次;接著右兩次,左兩次;右一次左一次,再回到右三左三的 ”階梯式練法” 。你也可以在左右划手交換之間做一個停頓,這就像catch-up游法一樣眾所皆知,這是很多競賽練習課程的主要訓練方法。

Thumbsies (zipper drill: thumb goes to your armpit; then extend arm. Forward: keeping contact through motion)拇指觸划體側訓練
Thumbsies(又稱拉練訓練: 拇指推完水後碰到大腿,延著大腿劃過身體體側來到腋下,然後再向前伸展。在這期間拇指都要和體側接觸。)
This drill is especially helpful for swimmers who have difficulty with the finishing stage of their strokes – the recovery. Thumbsies – a drill in which you literally drag the thumb of your trailing arm along the body from mid-thigh up through the armpit – is also good for teaching you to make your hands enter the water in front of your shoulder. If one of your hands has a tendency to enter the water beyond the mid-line of your body, causing you to zig-zag down your lane, thumbsies may be a big help.
這個訓練對於那些划完水後卻很難恢復到原來體位的人(應該是指流線形體位),是很有幫助的。拇指觸划訓練—你的手臂帶動拇指,從大腿中線向上延著身體逐步的划到腋下。這也是訓練你的手指在肩膀前方入水的好方法。如果你的手有越過身體中線入水的傾向,導致你在水道內游的歪歪曲曲,練習拇指觸划的游法會有很大的幫助。

19.7.09

衝擊


女子的自由式動作並不優美,但還算順暢,節奏非常緩慢,卻相當流暢。女子看起來非常的放鬆,用的是兩拍式打水,不燥不急,30公尺划次竟然划進22、21甚至19下。這讓想到優雅的女子,她游的也是相當的放鬆而且優雅,但是她的划次也是30左右。端詳了一會女子的身形瘦長,應該160公分上下,這顛覆了深值我腦中的對游泳的認知。以前在池裡也見過有人划進19下,不過都是男子,源源是其中一個;清芬的划次是24、25,而自己能划進27就很不錯了,一般狀況都在30下之間遊走。我一直以為自己的條件不好,即使泳技不錯,也只能這樣了,這就是自己的極限。
『妳要讓它漂浮就可以了。』源源聽了我講述那名女子之後,這樣的向我解釋。我發現自己漂的並不好,只要划手結束進入流線形體位時,前進動能很快就停止,也就是划手產生前進漂浮的動能太小了。
觀察了這個女子一個禮拜,她不會一直游,她總是游個一圏或半圏就停下來,這樣重復練習。這活生生的例子和youtub的影片給我的感覺完全不同,這幾日我模仿這個女子的練習方式,但是也只能勉強游進27下,而且要四拍以上的打水。
是應該讓划手和打水配合,不要因為只游幾趟逹不到效果就放棄練習,TI教練不也花了好幾年才讓划次進步到一定的程度。
要像女子那樣兩拍打水的慢游,又有效率的攪動靜水,心一定要靜下來,不論每次成績如何,都要去接受它,再靜下心來思索每次划手的感覺和可能的問題所在。
前幾天無意間發現以前買的一本『如何增進泳技』的書,這書買的比『魚式游法』要早好幾年,卻連翻都沒翻過。當天稍微看了一下,書中解釋了一些流體力學和游泳的關連,我似乎有所了悟!
這幾天練習自由式還是繼續用那女子短程練習的模式,一樣用兩拍打水,但是改變了划水的方式。根據原理解釋:自由式前進的動能,在攪動靜態的水面使成動態的前進流體,讓身順著這前進的流體前進,划水將會省力又快速。
以前一直以為手在水中高肘抓水,然後直接向後推水,是國際級的游泳高手勝出的原因,現在終於明白沒有那麼簡單。
這幾天終於讓每次划次都保持在25下以內,而且也是兩拍打水。希望也能和那名女子一樣划進22、21,但不要那麼緩慢的划姿。試試看罷,再多加點油罷 ! 。

12.7.09

共享


09.07.12
七月天,毒辣的太陽烤燙了地面的柏油;行道樹的枝葉,低垂無力的掛在枝幹上。紅燈下的騎士們,紛紛尋找路邊的陰影,躲避那刺眼又炙熱的光線。
好熱! ! ! 盛暑的季節,應該選擇清晨或傍晚時候去游泳。對於自己的習慣:晚上如果沒有活動,總是不愛出門。該改改生活習慣了! 其實最好是不要直接了當的去碰那火炎般的正午驕陽。
假日水藍天的泳客不少,總是天氣熱了,戲水的人多,純運動游泳的人沒多少,也或許都去游外池了。這種大熱天頂著大太陽游泳,對皮膚總是很傷害。但是,還是有人不在乎,幾個赤條條的男子身影,躺在外池旁的長椅上,做超強力的日光浴。
室內小池不時會跑進幾位阻塞水道的泳客,來來去去,有些小孩甚至在長泳水道嬉戲,高坐看台的救生員己經熱昏頭了! 也懶得管。小池的水溫達到31度,游起來心肺覺得相當的不舒服。今天沒有遇到任何熟人,只是自己一人在溫水池裡靜靜的游著,偶爾要閃躲水道內的障礙物。
人總是要學著包容、豁達,在盛暑的日子裡,要懂得和人分享清涼池水的喜悅,因為這些人不會一直都知道要把握機會,親近柔和婉約的水,可能也很難有機會感受到水的溫柔,除了在這炎夏難耐的日子裡。

4.7.09

雖退猶喜

比賽完後,還沒九點。看了一會青少年組的比賽,將近十點,招呼了一下王老師和聰哥,便先行離開青年公園。騎上了機車,並沒有直接回家,轉了一下路來到水藍天。假日水藍天的上午,客人通常較下午少。
今天要改變練習方式了! 這兩個月要開始練仰式了。
兩項賽程都遇到對手,能有較勁的對手是應該很興奮,但是這次反而亂了自己的節奏,跟著人家一直衝,到後來都沒力氣了。成績是不見得理想,蝶式維持住一個月前的成績,自由式還是那樣沒命的亂划。平日練習時的抓水、等待、重心轉換…,全忘了一乾二浄,雙手划水雖然高肘,還是在那空轉。
『妳本來比第二水道快,後來輸了。』聰哥說。因為,太注意對手了。這次賽程結束,彷彿更了解自己的個性,在發生狀況時還是不夠沈穩。
『喂 ! 你游仰式為什麼游到這邊水道,妳撞到我妹妹,拜託,妳這樣叫人家怎麼游?』同一水道一位瘦削的婦女,語氣非常銳利的指責我。
『對不起! 對不起!』我頻頻道歉,那婦女見我道歉,好生沒氣,也不再說什麼,但也不理我。接下來我總是儘量靠著水道線游,方才會游過中線只是為了超車罷了 ! 我沒有多解釋,只是道歉, 程度差太多了,解釋可能她們也聽不懂。等我游了一圈又趕上婦人,手不小心又摸到那婦人的時候,也不超車了,就轉成俯身,跟著婦人慢慢游了。後來兩個女子自動離開了這個水道,到隔壁水道去游了。
這個水道就剩下我一個人,現在可以開始練蝶式了。

29.6.09

太黑了!




『妳怎麼這麼黑,越來越像健美小姐。』月女姊巧巧的走到我身後,對望著池水發呆的我,開口第一句話就讓我驚恐不已。
這個星期為了比賽,中午大太陽下,都到外池去練習。我這見光黑的皮膚,那堪這般曝曬。男人當然越咖啡越健康越吸引女人;女人卻是越咖啡就越醜了! 況且,又有年紀了。
真是矛盾中,中午時段的小池人並不多,其實也不影響練習,何況人一多就蝶它幾下,識趣的大概都會離開我的水道,然後我還是可以一個人大喇喇的游。而且夏天了,也跟本不用擔心比賽池的水溫。
會去外池,還是清芬那句話:『要練蛙鞋打水。』 在室內池不能踢蛙鞋。而這幾日用蛙鞋練仰踢就覺得進步很多,真的很多,所以就不太拾得放棄。
看了一下鏡中的自己,真的是黝黑、乾、巴、枯、癟、瘦。只是,己經這個年紀了,也不靠臉蛋吃飯;釣小白臉重點在有錢,容貌還是其次,老女人再怎麼樣也不敵年輕貌美。不過,我要有錢也要花在刀口上(我自己身上)…,想太多了。

比賽或訓練一流的泳技未必一定要游外池,要練蛙腳就等日落西山,月出東山時再來練好了,有年紀了,沒本錢了,經不起正午大太陽的摧殘,對自己的身體好一點罷 ! 可是要用一輩子ㄉ。

11.6.09

How Sunburns Work追根究底談曬傷

Enjoy the sun this summer by Marshall Brain / (c) 2007, How Stuff Works Inc

Now that we are getting into the thick of summertime activities, sunburn is something that you have to think about. How is it that light can cause such intense pain?
既然,我們的夏日活動正在激!烈的展開,曬傷這件事就必須仔細考慮了。是怎樣的光線,會引起這般的疼痛。
Getting sunburn 曬傷了!
The easiest way to get sunburn is to stay inside for a month or two and then spend a day outside. When you go out in the sun, ultraviolet light penetrates into living skin cells, and it starts damaging and killing those cells.
要曬傷的最容易方法就是留在室內一兩個月,然後花一天的時間在戶外。當你外出在太陽下,紫外線穿透進入你活生生的皮膚裡,然後開始破壞殺死這些細胞。
The repair process starts when damaged cells release chemicals. The first thing the chemicals do is set off pain signals in your skin’s pain sensors. Those same chemicals also tell your body to send in white blood cells to eat all the damaged and dead cells. Your body dilates all the capillaries in the damaged area to increase blood flow. Sunburned skin turns red and hot because of all of those dilated capillaries bringing in the white blood cells. And your skin stings because every pain sensor in your sunburned skin is sounding the, “Hey, there is damage here!” alarm. 當受損的細胞釋放化學物質,修復的過程開始。最開始的時候,化學物質會對你皮膚的痛感應器官引發疼痛信號。這些相同的化學物質,也會告訴你的身體把白血球送過來,吃掉那些受損或死亡的細胞。你的身體會膨脹曬傷區域的所有微血管,增加血流順暢。曬傷的皮膚變紅、變熱,因為所有這些擴張的微血管流入了白血球,而且你的皮膚刺痛,因為你曬傷的皮膚的每個痛感應器都發出了『嘿!我這受傷了。』的信號。
Avoiding sunburn 避免曬傷
There are three ways you can avoid sunburn. One is to stay inside or cover all your skin with clothing. The second way is to use a sunscreen.
Sunscreen contains chemicals that absorb ultraviolet light. The third way is to go out in the sun a little bit each day and get a tan. The tan will protect your skin from sunburn.
有三種方法可以避免曬傷:第一種方就是待在室內或用衣服把全身包起來;第二個方法是使用防曬油,防曬油所含的化學物質會吸收紫外線;第三個方法是每天都外出曬一下太陽,讓皮膚變成古酮色,這古酮色會保護你的皮膚免於曬傷。

More about tans 更多關於古酮色
Here’s how a tan works. If you look at a cross section of your skin, you have the outer layer called the stratum corneum.
This layer contains the dead skin cells that you actually see covering your body. Below the stratum corneum is the granular layer, and below that is the basal layer. Tanning happens in the basal layer, which contains special cells called melanocytes. When a melanocyte detects ultraviolet light, it creates a brown pigment called melanin. Melanin, like sunscreen, absorbs ultraviolet light and protects your skin from damage. If people spent all their time outdoors, their skin would naturally tan and “untan” with the seasons. You would never get a sunburn.
古酮色的皮膚的作用是這樣的,如果你查看你皮膚的橫切面,最外層是角質層,這層的皮膚是死細胞,而這實際就是你能看到的覆蓋在你身體上的皮膚。在角質層的下一層是粒狀層;再下一層是基礎層,曬成褐色就發生在這一層。這一層包含了一種特別的細胞叫做『黑色素細胞』。當黑色素細胞察覺到紫外線,它會製造一種褐色色素叫做『黑色素』,黑色素就像防曬油一樣會吸收紫外線保護皮膚不受到傷害。如果人們花很多時間在戶外,他們的膚色就會隨著季節自然的變黑又『去黑』,但你永遠不會被曬傷。
More INFO更多資訊
Your skin is one of the most amazing organs in your body. The skin of a typical adult weighs about 3.5kilograms and covers about 1.8 square meters. Skin is loaded with sensors, blood vessels, sweat glands, hair follicles and muscles (one tiny muscle for each hair) and it has a very tough design so that it can handle things like abrasion and sunlight.
你的皮膚是你身體上最另人驚訝的器官之一。一個典型成人的皮膚,總重約3.5公斤。覆蓋的面績是1.8平方公尺。皮膚內有感應器、血管、汗腺、毛曩和肌肉(每根頭髮包有一小單位的肌肉) 。而且它也是非常強韌的設計,它可以應付擦傷和陽光。

Small Changes Equal Big Results 小改變大成果

You can make positive changes in just a few minutes a day by Pamela Osment
We form bad habits without trying. But we can purposefully develop good habits in just 15 minutes a day.

Become a lifelong learner
Each month, choose one new subject to learn about. Spend 15 minutes a day reading about it on the Internet or in books and magazines. You may discover that 15 minutes isn’t long enough to satisfy your interest. Before long, you’ll be an expert on the subject!
Become neater
Has the clutter in your home become overwhelming?
Do you have trouble finding something when you need it?
Take 15 minutes each day to deal with one pile of papers on your desk. Or use that short time to put away your clothes or to clean out the refrigerator. After just one month, you’ll be amazed at the new order in your life!
Become healthier
You may think you have no time for exercise. But just 15minutes a day of exercise can bring huge health benefits. You’ll strengthen your heart, bones and mind, and you’ll improve your attitude.
Making positive changes is possible. Before you know it, your slow and steady changes will become lifelong habits!


Did you know…
Bad habits die hard, so the best time to correct a bad habit is before it becomes a regular part of your everyday life. Good habits are often hard to develop. The goal is to make it a behavior or practice that is so fixed in your mind that you do it without thinking. Some experts say it takes about 20 days before a good habit becomes second nature.

3.6.09

Stroke Tips & Drills ~2(中譯)


Hand Skills 划手的技巧
Experts say that after kicking, hand entry is the most critical aspect of a swimmer’s forward propulsion. When swimmers’ hands enter the water, they direct a flow of water under their arms and past their torsos. This “ lift, “ combined with a strong kick, is what enables good swimmers to stay on top of the water.
專家說:在踢水之後,手的介入是泳者前進推進力的關鍵。當泳者雙手進入水中,他們引導水流流過手臂下方,通過軀幹抬昇軀體。這股上昇力和強而有力的踢水相結合,可以讓一個好的泳士停留在水面上。
As your hand enters the water during the initial (catch) phase of your stroke, you’ll want to keep your elbow high and your palm turned slightly outward. Slide your hand forward, as if putting it into a coat sleeve. Then turn your hand and the inside of your forearm toward your feet, point your fingertips down (or slightly across your body) and press your hand straight back. As you bring your hand past the center of your torso, your thumb should pass directly under your navel.
當你的手要進入水中,在划手初期你要保持高肘,你的手掌稍微外翻,然後將你的手向前滑動,就好像要將手穿進外套的袖子。然後把手掌帶向前臂內側朝向腿的方向,注意你的指尖向下(稍微穿過你的身體) ,而且用力筆直向後推水。當你的手掌通過你身體的中線時,你的拇指應該直接從你肚臍的下方通過。
TIP: years ago, you may have been taught to cup your hands while swimming, but your hands really shouldn’t hold water like cups do. Instead, they should work more like paddles. The most effective position for your hands is flat and open, with your fingers extended. Remember that the angle of your hand must adjust constantly to changes in the water, just as a sailor must constantly adjust the angle of his sail to changes in wind conditions.
要訣:幾年以前,可能有人會這麼教你:當你游泳時,你的手心內凹,手掌要像杯子一樣可以掬水(把水舀起來) 。但是手掌其實不應該像個杯子一樣的掬水(捧水),手掌的功用應該更像槳一樣。最有功效的狀態是:手指打直,手掌打開攤平。你的手掌在水中的角度必須時常做調整,就如水手必須經常依風向的改變,去調整改變船帆一樣。
By constantly changing the angle of your hands (sculling) you can maximize the amount of water you’re able to hold and displace during your stroke. The more you can hold and displace, the more powerful your stroke will be.
藉由不斷改變你兩隻手掌(雙槳)的角度,你可以增加抓水和總推水量,你的划水將會更有推進力。
Tennis Ball Drill 網球訓練
Swimming with your fists closed, or while holding a tennis ball in each hand, will help you develop sensitivity to the water when you re-open your hands (or swim without the tennis balls). Without the use of your fingers, you lose sensitivity to the water, not to mention a good deal of your pulling surface. To compensate for the relative lack of surface area, you raise your elbows, hoping to create propulsion with your forearms rather than your hands. When you re-open your hands, you’ll feel as though you’ve got trash can lids attached. Your pulling surface and power will be that much greater!
握拳或雙手各握一個網球游泳,在你開掌或拿掉網球後你將會對水更敏感。不用手指時,你會失去對水的敏感性,更別說想划到大量的水表面績。為了彌補抓水表面績的不足,你會抬高你的手肘,改用你的前臂替代你的手,希望去產生推進力。當你再打開你的手掌時,你會感覺你像握著一個垃圾桶蓋子,你推水的表面績和力量將會增進很多。
Breathing Skills 呼吸技巧
Many sports make you breathe heavily, but when you’re in the water, proper breathing is essential. When your breathing technique is off, your whole stroke will be affected. Experts say 60 to 70 percent of a swimmer’s improper body alignment stems from improper head movement when breathing.
很多運動都會產生劇烈的呼吸,但是當你在水中正確的呼吸是很重要的。當你的換氣技巧不好,你的整個泳技都會受到影響。專家表示:一位泳者不正確的體線,有百分之六十至七十源至於換氣時頭部的不當擺動。
Confident swimmers turn their heads just far enough to get their noses and mouths above the water line for air. But novice swimmers, out of fear and inexperience, feel they must turn their entire bodies – head, shoulders, hips and back – just to get air into their noses and mouths. This takes you out of your optimal streamlined position and wastes valuable time and energy.
有自信的泳者換氣,他們轉動頭部時口鼻剛好在水線上(空氣和水的交接線) 。但是初級泳者,除了害怕外也經驗不足,覺得他們必須轉動全身(包括頭、肩、臀部和背)才能藉由口鼻吸到空氣。這讓你無法保持理想的流線型體位,因而浪費寶貴的時間和能量。
Tip to control your head movement in the water, try to maintain an imaginary straight line that runs from the top of your head to the base of your spine. Never lift or drop your head from that axis, even when you turn your head to breathe.
要訣: 控制你的頭部在水中的轉動,試著維持一個假想直線軸,這頭直線軸以你的脊柱為基礎,貫穿你的頭頂。你的頭絕對不要抬高也不要低於這條中軸,即使當你轉頭換氣時也要維持在中軸上。

28.5.09

Joint Pain關節痛知多少


What should you do about joint pain? by Simon Stopps
關節疼痛你該怎麼辦?

SC: How common are joint problems? Who is most affected?
關節問題有多普遍呢? 誰最容易受影響?
DH: Everyone from young people to the elderly has joint problems. Injuries to joints compound, eventually leading to the more serious problem of osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis – the destruction of cartilage – affects 50 percent of people over the age of 55 and almost 100 percent of those over 75.
從年輕到上了年紀,每個人都有關節方面的問題。傷到了關節組織,最後更加導致嚴重的關節炎. 50%55歲以上的人和100%75歲以上的人都受到關節炎(軟骨組織遭迫害)的影響
SC: Which joints cause the most trouble?
那一個關節產生的問題最嚴重.
DH: Osteoarthritis develops very slowly and can occur in any joint. The joints most commonly affected are the knee, hip, hand and spine. Usually joints in the lower part of the body are the most troublesome because we use these joints to walk and bear weight.
關節炎的發生是非常緩慢的,而且它可以發生在任何關節。最常受影響的關節是:膝關節、髋關節、手腕關節和脊椎。通常關節位在人體的較底層部位,所以是最棘手的,因為我們使用這些關節去走路和負重。
Sc: How can one prevent joint problems?
一個人要如何預防關節問題?
DH: Daily stretching and strengthening exercises lead to stronger and more flexible joints that have more resistance to injury. It is also important to get plenty of rest and do a good warm-up and cooldown before and after exercising. Using protective equipment and avoiding unsafe situations can help prevent jnjuries from occurring in the first place.
每日例行的伸展肢體和強化運動可讓關節強化和更有彈性,這樣更能扺抗傷害。充分的休息和運動前後做好暖身和放鬆也是很重要的。使用防護設備和避免不安全的情境,可以幫助預防來自第一現場產生的傷害。(待續)
SC: what causes the joint pain?什麼會引起關節疼痛
DH: Obviously, injuries from muscle damage can lead to joint pain, but the most common cause is swelling or destruction of the cartilage. Though most people eventually recover from joint injuries, damage to the cartilage can’t be reversed and can only get worse. The pain and stiffness of osteoarthritis will persist and increase with activity.
最明顯的是,來自肌肉損傷的傷害可能導致關節疼痛,但是最常見的發生原因是軟骨的過份腫脹或破壞。雖然大多數的人最後都能從受傷中恢復,而軟骨的受損卻是無法修復,而且只會更糟。關節炎引起的疼痛和僵硬也會因為活動而持續和增加。
SC: What should you do if you already have joint pain?
如果關節已經疼痛,你該怎麼辦?
DH: If you are already suffering from joint pain, there are things you can do to improve your situation:
如果你已經為關節疼痛所苦,你可以做一些事來改善你的狀況
The R.I.C.E.(Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation) principle is a simple treatment that can be used with all injuries. Physical therapy treatments, such as massage, are also proven to provide long-term relief of joint pain. Be careful when selecting a treatment, though. Avoid traditional remedies that manipulate the joint as they may lead to further injury. If the problem persists, see your doctor. He or she may be able to offer medication that relieves symptoms. A new treatment call Orthokine may also be useful. Orthokine offers hope to osteoarthritis sufferers by actually halting the progress of osteoarthritis and providing long-term relief.
休息、冰敷、固定和抬高四個原則,是當受到任何傷害時常被拿來使用的簡單處治。物理治療法,比如按摩,也被用來長期舒緩關節疼痛。要小心的是,當你選擇一項治療方式,還是要避免傳統療法(民俗療法),因為不當的推拿按摩關節,可能導致長遠的傷害。如果問題沒有改善,就應該去看醫生。他們可以提供你一些藥物,舒解疼痛的症狀。還有一種新的治療方法稱為orthokine,可能會有用處。它確實可以停止關節炎的惡化,長期舒解症狀,它帶給關節炎患者希望。
Orthokine Therapy
關節炎療法
A new treatment offers hope for sufferers of joint pain by Dr. David W. Hang
一種新旳治療法為關疼痛者帶來福音
Osteoarthritis causes pain and makes movement difficult for as much as 10 percent of the population. Unfortunately, the cartilage destruction that characterizes osteoarthritis is a continuous process, and conventional treatments may encourage patients to use the joint more – leading to further damage.
關節炎引起的疼痛造成活動上的困難高達人口數的百分之十。很不幸的,軟骨的破壞是關節炎持續性發展的持質。而且一般鼓勵病人多運動關節的治療方式,將導至更深的損壞。
In the early 1980s, scientists discovered that patients with osteoarthritis produce abnormally high levels of a protein called Interleukin-1 (IL-1) which destroys cartilage, causing the disease. Further research led to the discovery of IL-1 Ra, a protein that counters the destructive effects of IL-1.
在1980年早期,科學家發現患有關節炎的病人會異常的製造大量的稱為白細胞介素-1的蛋白質,它會破害軟骨引起疾病。更進一步的研究發現了IL-1Ra,這是一種蛋白質,可以對抗白細胞介素-1產生的破壞。

Then, in 1996, a team of doctors invented Orthokine® therapy. This innovative process uses cells from the patient’s body to produce high concentrations of IL-1 Ra that are then injected into affected joints.
然後在1996年,一個醫師團隊發明了Orthokine®治療法。這種創新的治療過程是使用來自病人身上的細胞去產生高量集中的IL-1Ra,然後再注射進入受偒的關節。

Orthokine® therapy is revolutionary in that it actually halts the progression of osteoarthritis rather than simply alleviating the symptoms. Clinical trials have also shown that the therapy is more effective than other treatments. A recent study even suggests the treatment may result in cartilage regeneration.
Orthokine®療法是革命性的,因為它真的停止了關節炎的持續惡化,而不僅只是舒解症狀。臨床試驗也顥示這個療法比其它治療方法更有效果。一份最新的研究甚至提出這個治療法可能導引軟骨的再生。

Orthokin® therapy has been used successfully in Europe and Australia for the past decade, and its safety and effectiveness are well proven. This exciting treatment offers hope to osteoarthritis sufferers everywhere.
Orthokine®療法,過去十年在歐洲和澳洲己經很成功的被使用。它的安全性和有效性也被證實。這個另人興奮療法在任何地方都為關節炎患者帶來希望。(全文完)

24.5.09

Stroke Tips & Drills~1


Whether you’re a lap-swimmer, a former competitive swimmer, an injured runner, a
cross-training enthusiast or just someone looking for a fun, total-body exercise routine, you can learn modern stroke technique and become a better swimmer. If it’s been years, maybe decades, since your last swim lesson, you may be surprised to learn how much swimming technique has changed if you have children enrolled in a swim program, they’re probably learning to swim in a way that is vastly different from the way you were taught. Sometimes it’s easier to start fresh than to try to unlearn your old habits.
有時候,去重新開始(學習新的) ,會比試著去改掉舊習慣來的容易。
Good technique is what enables the better swimmers at your pool to whisk by you with apparently little effort. Even if some of them have lost their physiques over the years, they haven’t lost the technique they honed as younger, competitive swimmers.
好的泳技,就是能使一些較優秀的泳士,借由很少的努力(力氣)就能在他們的泳池裡飛速馳騁。一些競賽型選手,即使幾年後他們失去了他們的身材(身材變形) ,但他們卻不會失去在他們年輕時磨練出來的泳技。

How We Learn 我們如何學習
As with most sports, swimming is tougher to master than it looks. Your perception of how you swim is often very different from how you really do swim. Most adults overestimate their swimming speed, not to mention their swimming skills. Have a friend or lifeguard videotape you in the pool sometime, and you’ll see what we mean. The truth can be painful, but it’s very educational.
和大多數的運動一樣,要精熟游泳比它表面看起來還要困難。你覺得你游的是怎麼樣和實際上你真正游的怎麼樣,常有很大的差異。大部份的成人,都高估他們的游泳速度,那就更不用說他們的泳技了。請一位朋友或救生員錄下你在泳池的泳姿,然後你就會了解我們的意思了。真相可能是另人痛苦的,但它卻是很有教育性的。
We learn through observation , imitation, instruction and even pretend play. As adults, our egos often get in the way of the learning process when we think everyone is watching us. Here’s a tip: No one is watching you, unless they’ve read other chapters in this book! You are free to experiment and explore the world of swimming with childlike curiosity. 5
我們透過觀察、模仿、教學,甚至伴演遊戲玩耍來學習。當我們(一般成人)想到大家都在看我時,我們的自我常阻礙我們學習的進程。這裡有個要訣:沒有人會去看你,除非他們有讀過這本書的其它章節。全然自由的去經驗、探索這游泳的世界罷! 用你童真的好奇心。

Determining Your Skill Level 檢定你的泳技程度
In the fictional world of Garrison Keillor’s “Lake Woebegone,” everyone would be an above-average swimmer. But in the real world, where some of you are new to the pool and others have been swimming your whole lives, we have to make some distinctions to make this book as useful as possible.
在 Garrison Keillor ”悲傷之湖” 的虛幻世界裡,每個人都是頂尖的游泳高手。但是在真實的世界裡,有些是才剛開始接近泳池,有些則是視游泳為家常便飯了。我們必須做一些區別,讓這本書儘可能對大家都有幫助。
Consider yourself a novice swimmer if you’ve never been coached, if you’ve been swimming for less than two years, or if it takes you 26 or more (freestyle) arm strokes to cover a 25-yard pool length. Consider yourself an intermediate swimmer if you’ve had little or no coaching but have been swimming regularly for two to five years, or if you can complete a length of a 25-yard pool in 22 to 25 arm strokes. Consider yourself an advanced swimmer if you come from a competitive swimming background or take fewer than 22 strokes to cover 25 yard.
認定自己是個游泳新手(初階者):如果你從未受過游泳訓練、如果你的泳齡不超過兩年、或是你用捷泳游完25公尺泳池,手臂划水超過26次。
認定自己是中等級度的泳士:如果你受過一點泳訓課或沒接受過訓練,但是你定時規律的游泳達兩到五年之久,或是25公尺捷泳划水次數在22至25次之間。
認定自己是個高程度的泳士:如果你是來自一個競賽游泳背景,或25公尺捷泳的划次低於22下。(註: 一碼約一公尺)
How Efficient Are You in the Water? 在水中的你有效率嗎?
If you’re an adult swimmer taking more than 22 strokes per length of a standard 25-yard pool, it might be worth taking a closer look at your technique. As with mastering a tennis stroke, a golf stroke or a baseball batting stroke, mastering a swimming stroke takes patience and practice. You must isolate the unique demands on your arms, shoulders, hands, hips feet and legs, before you can put them all together into a single fluid motion. Good stroke technique results from two things: minimizing drag and maximizing propulsion.
如果你是個成人,在25公尺長的標準短池,捷泳划手次數多於22次,它就值得你仔細去檢視你的泳技。一如精熟網球揮拍、高爾夫球揮桿、棒球打擊一樣,要精熟泳技需要相當的耐心和練習。在你有能力統整你整個身體達到一個專一流暢的運動以前,你必須個別抽離你的手臂、肩膀、手、膝、小腿,做獨特的要求練習。好的泳技來至兩件事:減少阻力,增加堆進力。

Minimizing Drag 減少阻力
Practicing “push and glides” off the wall will teach your body to pierce the water like an arrow. You must first learn the “streamline position.” The concept of streamlining will surface throughout this book.
練習 ”蹬牆出發,然後滑行”,將可以訓練你的身體如弓箭一樣穿水而行。你首先必須學會 “流線形的體位”。流線形這個概念將會一直出現在本書中。
Stand with your arms extended in front of you, both palms turned down. Place one palm directly over the back of your other hand and align your fingers, hooking the thumb of your top hand around the pinkie side of your bottom hand. With your hand joined together (one on top of the other), raise them over your head. Stand on your tiptoes and reach as high as you can. As you stretch, squeeze your elbows in, so your biceps brush against your ears. Remember this streamlined position. It will come in handy throughout this book.
你的雙臂向前方伸直,掌心向下,一隻掌心疊在另一隻手掌背上,手指頭伸直,上方手掌的拇指勾住下方手掌的小指,讓你的雙手合在一起(一隻手疊在另一隻上面) ,抬起雙手到頭頂,用腳尖站立,儘可能往上拉高自己。當你在伸展時,雙肘互相緊靠,你的二頭肌能碰到你的耳朵。記住這個流線形體位,它會時常出現在這本書上。

Maximizing Propulsion (Forward movement) 增加推進力(向前運動)
Stop and glide after each stroke with one arm fully extended in front of you and the opposite arm resting at your side. Make a mental snapshot of this position as you glide for six kicks. Then take another stroke and stop again, gliding with the other arm extended in front of you. Kick six more times. Take another stroke and so on. Continue pausing with one arm extended in front of you and the other one at your side, changing arms each time, remember to push all the way back on each stroke, touching your thigh, then relax your arm. Stopping your arm at this point may feel awkward, but keep practicing.
每次划水後停止,然後滑行,一隻手臂向前完全的伸展,相對的另一隻手則放鬆在體側。當你滑行做六拍打水時,對這個體位做心靈快照(把這個動作記在心裡) 。然後再划另一次水,停止,一隻手臂向前方廷伸同時滑行,六拍或更快速打水。再做另一次划水,如此繼續持續這個中止狀態:一隻手臂向前延伸另一隻手在體側,再交換手臂。記住每次划水向後,手要碰到你的大腿,然後放鬆手臂。把手臂停在這個點上,可能會覺得笨拙,但是持續練習。

Basic Stroke Foundation基礎划水的建立
As mentioned above, to move forward in the water you need to increase your forward propulsion while minimizing the amount of body surface that comes in contact with the water, causing drag. The most important source of propulsion is your kick. That’s right, your kick. This may seem odd since it looks like your arms are doing most of the work. But without an efficient kick, your legs will drag through the water like anchors and hold you back immensely.
上面我們所提到的,要在水中向前移動,在減少你身體和水接觸的總表面積所產生的阻力的同時,你必須增加你前進的推進力。推進力的最重要來源是你的踢水。完全正確,你的踢水。這似乎很奇怪,因為它看起來幾乎是你的手臂做了所有的划水工作。但是,沒有一個有效率的踢水,你的雙腿會像錨一樣在水中拖著你,嚴重的扯你向後。
Watch the better swimmers look at your pool and notice how effortlessly they seem to kick. Then look at the slower swimmers at your pool. See how they thrash in the water? Ankle flexibility, not brute leg strength, is primarily what determines the effectiveness of your kick.
觀察那些在你的泳游池裡游的比較好的泳客,注意他們的踢水是如何輕鬆、毫不費力。然後再注意那些在泳池內游的比較慢的泳客,看他們在中水如何拼命亂踢。靈活有彈性的腳踝(不是強壯小腿的踢力) ,是決定你有效率踢水的根本主因。
Practice pointing your toes as you kick. By kicking with fins when you swim, or by sitting on your insteps on a comfortable rug at home, you can increase your ankle flexibility and eventually your kicking speed. (See below.)
當你踢水練習時,把重點放在你的腳尖。借由穿蛙腳踢水游泳,或在家中用腳背跪坐在舒適的地毯上,可以增加你的腳踝的靈活度,最後增快你的踢水速率。
TIP:
one of the secrets to swimming efficiently is knowing how to relax. Good swimmers seem to go farther and faster in the water, with less effort than novice swimmers. Why? Because they’re comfortable in the water. They extend their bodies fully to get ???.. most out of each stroke.
要訣:要游的有效率的祕密之一是:懂得如何放鬆。好的泳士在水中比起初學者似乎用更少的力氣就可以游得更遠更快。為什麼?因為他們在水中輕鬆自在,他們幾乎在每次划水之後都能完全放鬆的伸展他們身體。

Kicking Skills 踢水技巧
While the kick is not directly responsible for propelling you forward, it’s pretty tough to swim well without kicking well. If you don’t believe it, try this little exercise: in a safe environment, swim a few laps with your ankles bound together so you cannot kick freely. You can use surgical tubing or a small inner tube to hold your ankles together. what happens? Chances are your legs swerve madly from side to side and then sink toward the bottom of the pool as though they had weights attached. Try the exercise again. See how difficult it is to swim in a straight line when you can’t kick?
當踢水不能直接負起你前進的推進力時,想游的好而沒有很好的踢水,將會非常的辛苦。如果你不相信,試試這個小練習:先注意周遭環境的安全,然後把腳踝綁起來,不要踢水的游泳。你也可以用外科水術橡皮管或小的氣車內胎將兩個腳踝固定在一起,然後看看會發生什麼事?你的雙腿可能會左右胡亂的偏轉,然後朝池底沈下去,就好像你的雙腿背負了重物一樣。再試一次這個練習,看看當你不踢水而想游在一直線上,會是如何的困難?


Kicking: A Closer Look 踢水:最後一瞥
Kicking propels you in two directions: forward and upward. The forward component is of minimal value to non-competitive swimmers, but the upward component, or lift, is what allows you to hydroplane on top of the water, giving you speed. You kick also helps you counterbalance your arm stroke. What happened when you wrapped the band around your legs? You zig-zagged like an eel. Unless you have a perfect stroke with high elbow recovery and zero lateral movement, you need to kick just to maintain a straight line in the pool.
踢水會讓你往兩個方向推進:向前和向上。向前的要素對非競賽型泳者是沒什麼效益,但是向上(上昇)的要素,讓你能如水上飛機一樣停留在水面上滑行,給你速度。你的踢水也可以幫助平衡因手臂划水造成的失衡。當你把雙腳綁起來會發生什麼事?除非你有一個很完美的高肘划水,和知道如何做側面歸零校正運動幫助恢復平衡,否則你會像鰻魚一樣彎曲扭轉。在泳池裡,你就是需要踢水來維持你游在直線上。
You’re probably seen novice swimmers at your pool whose legs appear to be scissoring when they kick. The problem is in their arms, however, not their legs. Next time you’re at your pool, watch how their arms cross past the midline of their bodies. Their legs have no choice but to counterbalance their arm stroke by scissoring. If they didn’t do so, they’d sink or swim in circles. You might want to share this insight with them (politely).
在泳池裡你可能會看到一些初學者,踢水時出現剪刀腳。這個問題在他們的手臂而不是他們的腿。下次你在泳池,注意看他們的手臂入水時是如何橫過身體中線,他們的腿沒有選擇的必須用剪刀的踢法來平衡他們的手臂划水。如果他們不這麼做,他們就會下沈或盤旋的前進。當你知道他們的問題,你可能會想告訴他們,你對他們泳技的卓越洞察力(記得婉轉一點)。


Checking Your ankle Flex: The Toe Point Test 檢側你腳踝的靈活屈度:腳尖測試
Ankle flexibility is the key ingredient to kicking speed and thus, successful swimming. If you are able to point your toes, your feet will act like fins in the water. If you can’t point your toes – are you listening, runners, cyclists and triathletes? – your feet will act like anchors.
腳踝的靈活度是踢速和完美泳姿的關鍵要素。如果你能夠把重點放在腳尖,你的腳在水中就能像魚鰭一樣。如果你不把重點放在腳尖――你有沒有在聽,跑步的,騎腳踏車的,玩三鐵的?――你的腳就會像錨一樣(把你拖住並往下沉) 。
You can measure your ankle flexibility with a ruler. Sit on the floor with your legs extended in front of you and your heels resting on the floor. Point your toes as far as you can without causing pain (or have a friend press down gently on your toes.) Measure the distance from the floor to your toes. If your toes are within two inches of the floor, you should have a decent kick. If your toes are two to four inches from the floor, that’s fair. If you measure four to seven inches or more from the floor, your ankles are very tight, and you probably find it very difficult to kick with a kickboard. Many runners, cyclists, weight lifters and aerobics enthusiasts fall into the latter category. (See stretching exercise below.)
你可以用這個方法測量腳踝的靈活度:坐在地板上,兩腿向前伸直,後腳跟靠在地板上,腳趾盡可能向遠處伸長,但不要引起疼痛(或請朋友幫忙輕輕的往下壓) ,然後測量你的腳尖到地板的距離。如果你的腳趾離地兩吋以內,你應該會有一個很不錯的踢水;如果在2~4吋之間,那是正常的;如果是在4~7吋或超過,你的腳踝就太緊了,你可能會發現你用浮板打水會很困難。很多跑者、腳踏車騎士、舉重者和熱愛有氧運動者,都落在最後一項(在4~7吋之間) 。


Ankle Flex Exercises腳踝柔軟運動
1. Have a partner press down on your feet as you sit with legs extended.
2. Sitting on the floor, tuck the tops of your feet under a sofa. Slowly scoot back in the floor. Try to extend your legs fully. Be careful not to exert too much pressure on your Achilles tendon (behind the ankle area).
3. While sitting on a chair, dangle your feet and curl the tops of your toes to the floor. Press down.
4. Practice swimming with training fins on, especially when you kick.
1. 當你坐著時,雙腳前伸,有位同伴幫忙把你的腳盤往下壓。
2. 坐在地板上,把腳尖插到沙發椅下面,身體慢慢往後移,試著把你的腿整個打直。但是要小心不要太用力,避免壓迫到位於腳踝後側的阿基里斯鍵。
3. 坐在椅子上,把腳懸住,讓腳背指頭碰到地面,然後往下壓按。
4. 游泳時用蛙鞋練習,尤其是踢水的時候。


Head-Up Kicking Drill 抬頭踢水訓練
“Head-up” kicking will teach you proper body position – elevating the hips and chest to reduce resistance – and help you develop a strong kick. Clasp your hands together, arms fully extended in front of you, with your head out of the water. Inhale by lifting your chin straight ahead. Don’t forget to keep kicking when you breathe. The head-up kicking drill will come in handy when we discuss open-water swimming later.
抬頭踢水”將會教導你適確的體位――抬昇臀部和胸部可減少阻力――並且幫助你訓練成強有力的打水。你的雙手緊扣,向前伸直,你的頭要抬出水面,吸氣時抬起你在前方的胸部,當你換氣時不要忘了持續踢水。抬頭踢水訓練,對之後會討論到的開放水域游泳時,將會有所幫助。

9.5.09

如何準備比賽


「妳還要游嗎?」我問清芬,
「不了,我沒力氣了。」清芬回答,
「那我們上去罷!」我躍身上岸,一名戴著黑白條紋泳帽蹲在岸上的男子,對著跳上岸的我說:
「妳游好了?」
「是啊!」我客氣的回答並沒有再和他們搭搧,和清芬到熱湯池去討論泳技。
「妳知道嗎?我剛下水開始游時,覺得水很重。但我們練完衝刺之後,再來的慢游,我覺得游的之順,水感之好的!」清芬說,
「我也一樣。剛下水熱身,就覺得游不動,划次都到三十以上;衝完後放鬆游,划次降到三十以下,而且很輕鬆。」我答,
「以前王老師跟我說:比賽練習要衝一趟,放鬆游一趟;賴聰耀以前要比仰式,練習時也是衝一趟仰式,慢游一趟仰式;妳知道阿勇嗎?他也是這樣練習。他還跟我說:打水如果慢慢打,乾脆不要打,因為沒有用處。他說練習打水,也是要快速打水,再放鬆回程。而且他們會一趟自由式,一趟仰式交替練習,讓身體做正反對稱動作的調節,而不會僵於一個方式。」清芬說,
「妳說的有道理,我以前一直長泳等速練習,陷於同一個情境,反而對水不太能有體會,今天衝一衝再放鬆游,對水的感覺就敏銳多了。」我答,
「不要一直游長泳,會使身體變成機械式的運動,應該要多變化的練習,也比較不會無聊。打水也相當重要。」清芬說,
「我知道,妳的打水就很好,妳的打水都在水線下,幾乎百分之百的推進。我會把腳踝踢到水面上,水花也很大。」我答,
「以前王老師跟我說:打水最好就是要在水線下,才不會浪費力氣。打水有ㄅㄡ.. ㄅㄡ…的聲音是錯誤的。」
「我知道,慣性要改比較困難,有時調整過來,速度反而慢下來。不注意,可能一下又回到慣性。就跟妳打坐一樣,要非常的警覺。淑真姊的打水就很好,也很快,她的划手就是慢慢的、順順的,但是她的打水幾乎都是六拍。她跟我說:打有水,打沒水差很多;打有水很重要!浮感好,游起來輕鬆多了!我以後還是要用點心絞正打水的動作。」我答,
「打水練習,應該要佔我們平時練習總量的二分之一以上。你明天還會來嗎?我們先練打水,再來衝刺、放鬆,就以今天的模式再來練習看看!」清芬建議,
「好呀!就這麼試看看!」我同意的回答。

28.4.09

Stroke Tips & Drills ~ 3




Butterfly
The Stroke

Like a snappy flip turn, a well-done butterfly stroke is something that will turn heads at your pool. It’s the perfect blend of power and grace, the sign of a confident – and highly fit – swimmer. Unlike the alternating motion of the freestyle or backstroke, butterfly requires both arms to move simultaneously overhead, which requires great stamina and flexibility.
A butterflier’s classic double-arm recovery motion is set up by the kick, however, not the arms. The kick, sometimes called the “dolphin kick,” is what gets your body into a high, comfortable position in the water so you can propel yourself down the pool without causing immediate fatigue.
As with the other swim strokes, the butterfly follows the standard catch-pull-recovery sequence. Now that you’re bit more familiar with it, we’ll take a closer look at body position, arm motion, leg and hip motion, breathing, and then some tips on putting it all together.
Body Position
As with the breaststroke, you do the butterfly in a streamlined prone position with your arms and legs extended at the beginning of your stroke cycle. Your head should be forward with the water at eyebrow level. Your hips and shoulders should be high above the water and parallel to its surface.
Arm Motion
Your arms should move in tandem, with each one sculling underwater in an S-shaped pattern. As with other swim strokes, you’ll want to keep your elbows higher than your hands for maximum leverage. But since your body doesn’t rotate as in freestyle or backstroke, your under water pull in the butterfly is shallower, and your overwater recovery is wider and lower.
The butterfly arm motion can be broken into four stages: the catch, the pull (phase 1 and phase 2), and the recovery.
The catch
Your hands should enter the water together, shoulder-width apart. Your elbows should be up and your thumbs should be down, as in freestyle. Slide your hands forward, then outward and downward at a 30- to 45-degree angle from the water’s surface. Position your hands about four to eight inches below the water’s surface to get a good hold on the water. Because of the timing of your kick, you’ll only have a brief window of opportunity to execute your catch.
The Pull: Phase1
Move both arms simultaneously in an out-down-back motion, bending your elbows slightly and rotating your arms from the shoulders. At the end of Phase 1, your forearms should be vertical, and your palms should face back toward your feet, no wider than shoulder-width apart.
The Pull: Phase2
Now you’re ready for the acceleration, or power, phase of your pull. Bring your hands together under your stomach so your elbows bend at a 90-degree angle. Then force your hands outward and back toward your feet. Continue forcing water behind you until your arms are almost fully extended and your hands are at a point just past your hips. Since this is where your shoulders begin to emerge from the water, it’s an ideal time to breathe.
The Recovery
As your hands emerge from the water, swing them around to your sides and then in front of you. Your elbows should be higher than your hands and your fingers should just be skimming the water’s surface. When you start your recovery, your hands should trail behind and your elbows should lead your arm swing. Halfway through your recovery, your hands should take over the lead as your forearms extend in front of you just prior to your catch. During the initial phase of your recovery, your arms should be relaxed, but they should move quickly, using the power generated by your upper back and shoulders in acceleration phase of the pull.
Leg and Hip Motion
The kick accounts for at least on-third of your power in the butterfly stroke, so it must be carefully coordinated with your arm motion, breathing and body motion.
The dolphin kick – a wavelike two-beat kick in which your legs move up and down in tandem – is designed to push still columns of water behind you quickly and forcefully. During the downbeat, thrust your hips upward so your buttocks can break the water’s surface. During the upbeat of the kick, thrust your hips downward. This is what will give you the powerful, undulating motion that gets your entire body into the stroke, not just your limbs.
KIP:Keeping your feet point on the downbeat of your kick will help you direct water backward, not downward, and will help you sustain the undulation that began in your hips.

Butterfly Breathing
Head Position
Keep your face shallow in the water at all times. Novices usually push their heads down in an effort to raise their hips and legs. This reduces their ability to generate power by pushing their shoulders down, and it forces them to rise back up in order to breathe. The resulting up-and-down motion impedes forward movement. Instead, the hips should be raised to transfer weight to the chest area.
TIP: to integrate breathing into your butterfly motion, inhale at the completion of your arm stroke, so your mouth clears the water as your arms recover. To put the whole stroke together, swim in the following sequence: catch-and-kick, pull-and-kick, inhale-and-recover, catch-and-kick, pull-and-kick, inhale-and-recover.

Turns
Since most of us swim in pools, we are forced to reverse direction every 15, 20 or 25 strokes. It makes sense to find a fast, energy-saving way to turn our bodies around so we can keep our workout flow intact.
There are essentially two types of turns: the open turn, used in all four swim strokes, and the flip turn, used in freestyle and backstroke, especially when speed is important. Fitness swimmers should learn the open turn before attempting flip turns. Due to space limitations, we’ll limit our discussion to freestyle turns only.
The Open Turn
The open turn is the easiest turn to learn and allows you ample time to catch your breath. There are two things to remember when doing open turns. First, keep your body as low in the water as possible during inhalation. Second, the hand you use to reach for the wall should always be opposite the side of your body that’s going to initiate your turn.
The Approach
Approach the wall with your eyes open and your face just under the water’s surface. Try to maintain your normal stroke as you arrive at the wall with your lead arm extended in the catch position. (Refer to ???? style section earlier in this chapter if you’ve forgotten the catch position) take your last stroke about on body length away from the wall and roll onto your side as you reach for the wall with your bottom arm. Use your bottom arm rather than your top arm, since it will help you to cut through the water more cleanly and get more reach.
TIP Try not to shorten your stroke or glide too much as you approach the wall. Keep kicking, rather than stroking, if you’re worried about not having enough momentum to reach the wall.(圖24)

The Pivot
To begin the turn, grab the pool edge (or gutter) with your extended hand. As your hand reaches the wall, flex your elbow, bring your hand and body close to the wall, allow your opposite shoulder to drop, and rotate 180degrees so you’re facing the opposite direction to which you came in. As you rotate, bend your knees and swing your feet and hips under your body. Lift your hips just enough to inhale quickly as your weight shifts.
TIP Keep your head and shoulders tight to the waterline during your pivot.

The Plant
As your feet touch the wall, let go with your hand and swing it over your shoulder and drop it about one foot beneath the water’s surface to join your other arm (which should remain extended away ??? the wall throughout the turn).(圖25)
The Push-Off
Be on your toes, rather than flat-footed, and drop your push-off hand behind your head to join your other hand. Allow your torso to drop one to two feet underwater as you go into your best streamlined position (elbows locked, arms fully extended overhead). Remain in the side-lying position for the first few yards of the push-off and drive your legs hard, but in a compact manner.
The Glide
Don’t resume stroking immediately after your turn. Instead, let your momentum carry you as far as possible. When your momentum subsides, start to flutter kick. Wait until you start to surface before ???? first stroke. Pull with the bottom arm. (the arm opposite your breathing side). Only after you’ve completed the pull on your breathing side should you take your first breath. This skill will come in handy when you’re ready to tackle flip turns.

Flip Turns
A flip turn (or racing turn) is the fastest and most powerful way to change direction when doing the freestyle or backstroke. Because backstroke flip turns are done almost exclusively by competitive swimmers, we’ll limit our discussion to freestyle flip turns, of which there are two types: conventional (i.e., twisting) and flat.

The Conventional Flip Turn
The Approach
When your leading arm is two to four feet from the wall, tuck your chin to your chest and take your last stroke. Your lead arm and your trailing arm should both be at your sides when you begin your somersault. For extra speed going into the wall, you may want to do a little dolphin kick here. (For more on the dolphin kick, see the butterfly section earlier in this chapter.)
Deciding when to initiate the somersault is crucial. Be conservative when judging your distance from the wall. It’s better to give yourself too much room to execute the turn than too little. “balling up” when you somersault too close to the wall will cause your feet (圖25) to hit too high. The result? You’ll torpedo straight to the pool floor when you push off, instead of gliding smoothly along the water’s surface. This is one of the most common errors novice swimmers make when learning flip turns. It not only wastes energy as you claw your way back to the surface, but it costs you valuable time and oxygen.
There’s a simple way to determine how far from the wall you should begin your somersault: the point at which your knees can be fully flexed and coiled for maximum push-off when they hit the wall. It just takes practice to get a feel for this. (See Flip Turn Drill: Progressive Approaches, page 27.)
As your speed improves, you can begin your turn farther and farther from the wall, because your momentum will carry you in. The farther from the wall you can flip, the better. Every inch you don’t have to swim toward the wall is another inch you don’t have to swim back the other way.
TIP: Make sure you take a big bite of air as you take your last stroke before beginning the actual flip. You won’t be able to take another breath until you surface.

The Flip
To begin the somersault, scoop water away from your hips (and toward your face) with the arm opposite the side to which you are going to turn. (If you read the section on open turns, this should sound familiar.) to get your hips and legs out of the water, bend your torso forward and push water toward your abdomen with your leading arm. Then tuck your chin to your chest and bend your knees as your heels, feet and knees emerge from the water. (圖27)
The Pivot
As you snap your feet over your head for the somersault, twist your trunk to one side. After completing the flip, start to straighten out of your tuck, plant your feet on the wall – about shoulder-width apart – and begin to extend both arms in front of you.
(圖28)
The Push-off
Continue to twist and extend your body during the glide so you finish face down in a fully prone position. Recover to the surface (as in open turns) by lifting your head and arching your back to streamline your body before beginning to flutter kick.
If you find yourself too low in the water and gasping for breath after your turn, it means you’re probably starting your somersault too close to the wall. If you feel like you are not getting as far off the wall as you should, you’re probably somersaulting too far from the wall and losing power. Try initiating your flip closer to the wall. Don’t worry about hitting your head or banging your heels. (圖28)(圖29)
TIP: To prevent yourself from “balling up,” keep your eyes open as you somersault and focus on your knees, rather than your stomach or chest. This will give you better extension and rotation on the turn and reduce the strain on your stomach and lower back muscles.
Flip-Turn Drill: Progressive Approaches
Practice your approach in the shallow end of the pool. Start about 10 feet from the wall, take a stroke or two, dolphin kick as you go into your somersault and then push off forcefully from the wall. The more you can bend your knees when you make your plant on the wall, the more power you’ll have for the push-off. Landing on your toes, rather than flat-footed, will also give you more power.
Make a mental note of how far you can go before losing your momentum. Can you make it to the red flags overhead? When you come to a stop, repeat the drill and compare your distance after the push-off. After doing five successful turns in a row, move out to 15feet from the wall. When you’ve done five consecutive good turns at 15 feet, move out to 20 feet, then 25 feet, until you’re comfortable initiating your turn after swimming a full length of the pool. The progressive approach drill allows you to practice a great number of flip turns in a short period of time, and it can be a great cardiovascular workout, too.
TIP To prevent water from rushing up your nose when you flip, take a large breath before initiating your turn and exhale through your nose and mouth as you somersault..

The Flat Flip Turn
In the conventional flip turn discussed above, you somersault and twist simultaneously. In the flat flip turn, you somersault without twisting, pushing off the wall with your back, not your stomach, facing the pool floor. Stay deep under the water as you glide in a ??? extended streamlined position, occasionally twisting your trunk from side to side in a corkscrew-like motion. The corkscrew motion helps you cut through turbulent water and maintain your momentum.
While not as widely practiced as the conventional flip turn, the flat flip has several advantages. First, the deep, flat push-off slips you under, rather than into, the wall of turbulent water the follows you down the pool. Secondly, you can flip faster when you don’t have to twist your body simultaneously, and you can position your feet more easily for a good push-off. Finally, the flat flip is a lot gentler on your lower back, since you don’t have to twist as you somersault.

Open-Water Swimming
For the first timer, open-water swimming can be a scary experience. You must breathe, navigate and maintain stroke proficiency in an unfamiliar, murky environment that lacks lane lines, walls and solid footing underneath. The key to developing confidence in open water is to adapt your newfound pool skills to your non-pool swimming environment.
Open-Water Technique Drill
Lying on your stomach without taking any strokes, kick with fins on, keeping your hands at your sides. Arch your back enough to get your chin out of the water to breathe. Try to propel yourself in a straight line down the pool without taking an arm stroke. You’ll have to accentuate the arching motion to perform this drill without tiring your neck muscles. You can do this drill in the swimming pool or in open water.
Getting Started
Start your open-water experience by swimming along familiar stretch of shoreline, or aim for a nearby boat, buoy or other fixed landmark. Build up gradually. As you gain confidence in open water, you’ll be able to match, if not exceed, the distance you would normally swim in the pool. Caution: Never swim alone in open water. Let the lifeguards know what you’re doing before you plunge in. if there is no lifeguard on duty have at least one companion on hand to watch you at all times.
Before You Enter Water
You have to start warm to stay warm. Just as when swimming in a pool, you must warm up thoroughly before plunging into the open surf. Jogging, stretching and doing jumping jacks will get your heart pumping and your blood moving before you begin swimming. (See also the discussion of wetsuits beginning on page 56.)
Adjusting Your Stroke
Use a higher arm-recovery motion than you would in a pool. On a rough day, it’s not uncommon to do a lot of “air stroking,” in which you extend your arm for the catch and find there’s no water to catch because you’re at the crest of a wave. Learn to expect breaks in your rhythm and take them in stride.
Adjusting Your kick
Since salt water is more buoyant than pool water, you don’t need to kick as hard. A two-beat kick (two kicks for every arm pull) is fine.
Navigating
Pick fixed landmarks like buildings, trees or hills to navigate. Lift your eyes every few strokes and constantly adjust your direction. Remember to keep kicking when you lift your head to sight landmarks or buoys. Otherwise you’ll lose your momentum each time you check your direction and waste lots of energy trying to get back up to speed.
If you encounter riptides (narrow channels of water that move outward from shore), let them carry you. Don’t try to fight them. Dive under, not over, breaking waves, and come up swimming after they pass so you can maintain your momentum.
Dealing with the Elements
One of the early symptoms of hypothermia is loss of judgement; by the time you realize you’re in trouble, it’s often too late. Always swim with a partner or group. If anything seems not quite right, or if you cannot feel your hands or feet, get out of the water immediately.
How Cold Is Too Cold?
The fitness Swimmer advisory council recommends that even the strongest swimmers use extreme caution when swimming in sub60 water, especially if they plan to swim for more than 30 minutes. The council also recommends that you wear a neoprene wetsuit and at least one swim cap for insulation whenever you’re in water below 65 – experts say 30 percent of your body’s heat is lost through your head.

27.4.09

TAKE EASY (放輕鬆)




TAKE EASY 放輕鬆


TAKEEASY 放輕鬆


TAKE EASY 放輕鬆


TAKE EASY 放輕鬆


TAKE EASY 放輕鬆


25.4.09

Stroke Tips & Drills ~ 2


P U T T I N G I T A L L T O G E T H E R
FREESTYLE
The Stroke
The Catch

The freestyle stroke begins here, with your hand reaching forward and slicing into the water. Your elbow should be up (and remain higher than your hand throughout the stroke). Your hand and forearm should enter the water at a 30- to 45-degree angle. Keep your hands relaxed thumbs down and palms facing outward. Then extend your arm into the water fully. Your hand should be four to eight inches below the water’s surface before you begin the first phase of the pull.
The Entry
Your arm should enter the water in front of your shoulder, so the bubbles just miss your ear. If your arms come in closer to the centerline of your body, you may be swinging your hips out to the side, causing extra drag and impinging on the muscles and tendons in your shoulder. A wider entry can cause your entire arm to drag forward through the water.
Your fingertips should enter first, followed by your hand, forearm, elbow, triceps and shoulder, all entering through the same (12) “hole.” Imagine that you are putting your arm into a coat sleeve – everything goes down into the same tube, to slip into that tube, your elbow has to be bent and held high. Don’t force your arm into the coat sleeve. Relax and let your arm’s own weight pull it down. Great swimmers always look relaxed in the water because they are relaxed.
The Pull
Your underwater pull is best described by changes in the direction of your hand sweep. The down-sweep begins after your catch, with your wrist flexed at a 45-degree angle and your hand facing out-ward. This motion is a down and outward pattern that maintains a high elbow position. As your hand passes laterally, your body should be rolling toward your opposite side to assist in the out-sweep. Once your hand passes outside your shoulder – i.e. at its deepest point – it should change direction to face inward, backward and slightly upward toward the midline of your body.
The pull phase of your stroke should not be dominated by elbow extension, but rather by body roll coupled with the upward motion of your slightly flexed elbow.
The Recovery
As you lift your arm out of the water, increase the bend in your elbow. Continue keeping your elbow higher than your hand, and lead the arm swing forward with your elbow. Point your fingers backward and allow them to trail behind until you are midway through your recovery. At this point your fingers should take over the lead. Your hand should enter the water at a 30- to 45-degree angle, thumbs facing downward, to begin again with the catch.


Freestyle Breathing
Head Position
Between inhalations, hold your head so the waterline is at mid-forehead level. Exhale easily but steadily from your nose and mouth. When turning your head to breathe, maintain a straight line between the top of your head and the base of your spine.

Timing
Your shoulder should roll up and back when you stroke. When breathing on your stroking side, simply follow your shoulder back with your chin. Inhale as soon as your mouth clears the water. Your body should already be rolling back to the other side. Your chin will lead your shoulder as your face returns to the water.
TIP Bilateral breathing, often called alternate-side breathing, requires you to change breathing sides after each stroke cycle. This skill eliminates neck and shoulder fatigue and promotes better balance and body alignment. Bilateral breathing is an essential navigational skill in open water, too.

Freestyle Drills
Like many people who want to swim faster, you may be tempted to increase your arm turnover in an effort to increase your speed. Sounds logical. But when you look over at the fastest swimmers at your pool, thy seem to be moving their arms slower than you are, not faster. What’s going on here?
The secret to faster swimming lies not in making your stroke faster, but in making it longer. Single-arm drills are a great way for swimmers, especially uncoached swimmers, to increase the length and efficiency of their stroke.
By stroking with only one arm at a time, you can examine each part of your stroke sequence in minute detail. This will allow you to uncover technique flaws as well as strength imbalances between your left and right sides.
Single-Arm Drills
When doing single-arm drills, begin your pull by flexing your wrist and digging down for the bottom of the pool. If you are using your right arm, you will breathe on your right side. When? As your right hand finishes its stroke at your thigh. You should be looking at a point between the 12 o’clock and 2 o’clock positions when breathing on your right side and between the 10 o’clock and 12o’clock positions when breathing on your left side. By learning to limit your head turn, you will keep your body in a more fluid position and waste a lot less energy. (See illustrations on page 12.)
Count the number of strokes you take per length of the pool. If you take fewer strokes with one arm than you do with the other, you’ve uncovered a strength imbalanve. You’ll want to spend more of your drill time on your “ weak” side than your “strong” side.
Variations
In addition to the one lap left/one lap right single-arm drill sequence, you can do three strokes right/three strokes left, followed by two right/two left, one right/one left, then back up the “ladder.” You also can alternate between right- and left-arm strokes with a momentary pause in between. This is known as catch-up swimming, a staple of many competitive swim programs. (picture single-arm drill)
Thumbsies
This drill is especially helpful for swimmers who have difficulty with the finishing stage of their strokes – the recovery. Thumbsies – a drill in which you literally drag the thumb of your trailing arm along the body from mid-thigh up through the armpit – is also good for teaching you to make your hands enter the water in front of your shoulder. If one of your hands has a tendency to enter the water beyond the mid-line of your body, causing you to zig-zag down your lane, thumbsies may be a big help.


Backstroke
The stroke

The backstroke is not so much swum on the back as it is on the side. Accomplished backstrokers have the ability to rotate power-fully and rhythmically from one side to the other. They spend as little time as possible flat on their backs – where the water’s resistance is greatest – and as much time as possible on their sides, where they minimize the amount of body surface that must push through the water.
By rotating your body at the beginning of each (back) stroke, your hand can enter the water at a deeper level than it could if you remained flat on your back. The deeper your hand, the more powerful a fulcrum you’ll have to push water behind you.
Your head position is the key to controlling what the rest of your body does in the backstroke. Your head is the only thing that should never move in backstroke.


Backstroke Breathing
Head Position
Point your nose skyward at all times. Find a point on the ceiling and keep your eyes focused on it as you swim. This will remind you to keep your head still. Your chin should be slightly tucked, as though your head were resting on a small pillow.
Timing
There is a breathing rhythm for the backstroke, although most novice swimmers hold their breath to avoid swallowing water when inhaling. Try swimming easily on your back, inhaling on one arm recovery and exhaling on the other. Do this for one breath on each stroke cycle. When swimming harder, inhale as one arm exits the water and exhale as it re-enters. This will give you two breaths on each stroke.
Tip: To remind yourself not to hold your breath, avoid pursing your lips or puffing your cheeks. Just relax and keep your face slack.
To make the backstroke motion second nature, you’ll need to mix in drills frequently with your “straight” swims. Alternate one length of drills (see below) with one length of straight swimming.

Drills for Learning the Backstroke Body Position
Barbecue Skewer Drill

Start by lying on your back and flutter kicking with your arms resting on your sides. As you kick, roll one shoulder up toward your chin. Hold it there briefly, return to the neutral position and then roll the other shoulder up toward your chin. Fight the urge to take a stroke. During each rotation, your whole body – from shoulder to toes – should rotate on the same axis, perpendicular to the water’s surface, as if on a barbecue skewer. Your head should remain still throughout this drill.
Hold the side-lying position briefly on each rotation. Once you’re comfortable with the feeling of controlled body rotation, practice it with the arm stroke included.
TIP: Flutter kicking on your back while wearing training fins will teach you to keep your hips elevated for better body position and a stronger kick.
Six-Six Drill
Start by lying on your back with your legs extended and toes pointed. Flutter kick on your side for six kicks (or three counts), with your bottom arm extended overhead and your top shoulder touching your . Your head should remain fixed with your nose pointing toward the ceiling – try to keep your eyes focused on the same spot on the ceiling. After six kicks, take a stroke, recover fully and then briskly roll to your other side. Repeat this stroke-recover-roll sequence with a side-lying pause between strokes. The idea is to reduce the pause gradually until you’re swimming in a nearly normal rhythm.
When rolling from side. Imagine that your body is rotating on a single straight-line axis that runs from the top of your head to the bottom of your spine.


Drills for Learning the Backstroke Arm Stroke
To understand how to incorporate your arms into the backstroke, imagine that you could reach down about two feet below the water’s surface and grab a convenient handle for leverage. This handle would allow you to pull your body past your hand (rather than pull your hand past your body).

Single-Arm Drill
This drill utilizes the same rotating kick position as the barbecue Skewer Drill (see page 14). With your left arm resting at your side, stroke a length of the pool with your right arm only. On the next length switch arms so you’re stroking only with your left. At the completion of each pull, make sure the shoulder on your stroking arm is touching your chin. Count your single-arm strokes per length-aim for 10 to 14 if you’re in a standard 25-yard pool.

Breaststroke
The Stroke
The breaststroke has several benefits for fitness swimmers: It’s an excellent way to vary the challenge and pace of a workout, the leg motion is terrific for toning your inner and outer thighs, and the arm motion is great for toning your chest muscles.
Contrary to how it might look, breaststrokers do not move their arms and legs simultaneously when they swim. Rather, they pull, inhale, kick and glide, although there is some overlap between the elements. There should be a clear distinction between the kick and pull. As with other swim strokes, it’s a good idea to break down the breaststroke into its component parts before trying to put it all together.
Arm Motion
Imagine your hands tracing a heart-shaped Valentine in the water, beginning and ending with your arms extended in front of you, just below the water’s surface. During the pull, your arms should trace a smooth, outward, downward curve followed by an accelerated, sharper upward movement that brings your hands together beneath your chest. In the recovery, your arms should shoot straight forward, returning to your starting position.
Leg Motion
Most fitness and competitive swimmers prefer the newer, narrower “whip kick” to the old-fashioned “frog kick.” Bend your knees-not more than hip-width apart – and bring your heels together near your buttocks. Simultaneously flex your feet and turn your toes outward so your lower legs form a V. then whip your lower legs down, around and together in an outward, backward semi-circle, finishing with your knees straight and your toes pointed. This circular back-ward motion is the main propulsive force behind the kick.
Body Position
Prone and streamlined. At the beginning and end of your stroke, extend your arms in front of you with your hands together, four to eight inches below the water’s surface. Your palms and thumbs should be angled slightly downward. Straighten your legs behind you, keeping your hips and feet just below the water’s surface. Your hips should be undulating visibly during the stroke cycle.


Breaststroke Breathing
Hear Position
Hold your head still, with your eyes fixed at a point on the water just in front of your hands. Keep your chin locked and slightly tucked.
Timing
Two common breaststroke errors are breathing too early in your stroke, which robs your pull of its power, and lifting your chin to breathe. Instead, keep your face in the water as your hands press down and outside the shoulders, then breathe as your hands reverse direction and sweep inward again.

TIP: Breathe by lifting your torso rather than just your chin. As your hands sweep inward, your arm action should lift your shoulders out of the water. Inhale as your body clears the water. Fully extend your hands before your face goes back under.


Breaststroke Coordination
The correct sequence should be: Pull, inhale, kick and glide. Bend your knees to begin your kick at a pint just after you’ve inhaled, with your arms under your chest. Then, as your arms begin their recovery, your knees should be bent to their fullest – some breaststrokers have enough flexibility to touch their heels to their buttocks. Your legs should supply at least 50 percent of your propulsion in the breaststroke.