The Stroke 划水的方法
The Catch 抓水
The freestyle stroke begins here, with your hand reaching forward and slicing into the water. Your elbow should be up (and remain higher than your hand throughout the stroke). Your hand and forearm should enter the water at a 30- to 45-degree angle. Keep your hands relaxed thumbs down and palms facing outward. Then extend your arm into the water fully. Your hand should be four to eight inches below the water’s surface before you begin the first phase of the pull.
The Entry 入水點
Your arm should enter the water in front of your shoulder, so the bubbles just miss your ear. If your arms come in closer to the centerline of your body, you may be swinging your hips out to the side, causing extra drag and impinging on the muscles and tendons in your shoulder. A wider entry can cause your entire arm to drag forward through the water.
Your fingertips should enter first, followed by your hand, forearm, elbow, triceps and shoulder, all entering through the same “hole.” Imagine that you are putting your arm into a coat sleeve – everything goes down into the same tube, to slip into that tube, your elbow has to be bent and held high. Don’t force your arm into the coat sleeve. Relax and let your arm’s own weight pull it down. Great swimmers always look relaxed in the water because they are relaxed.
The Pull 推水
Your underwater pull is best described by changes in the direction of your hand sweep. The down-sweep begins after your catch, with your wrist flexed at a 45-degree angle and your hand facing out-ward. This motion is a down and outward pattern that maintains a high elbow position. As your hand passes laterally, your body should be rolling toward your opposite side to assist in the out-sweep. Once your hand passes outside your shoulder – i.e. at its deepest point – it should change direction to face inward, backward and slightly upward toward the midline of your body.
你在水中的推進力的最佳描述就是：在水中不斷改變你的手掌控水的方向。在你手掌抓水之後就開始水中推水，你的手腕向內彎曲45度角，你的掌心向外。推水是個手掌向下和朝外移動而且保持高肘姿勢的狀態。當你的手掌在通過體側時，你的身體應該朝對稱的一側滾動來幫助你向外推水。一旦你的手掌經過你肩膀的外側 -- 也就是指尖在划水的最深點 ---你的手掌應該改變方向，掌心向內、向後、稍微向上朝向身體中線。
The pull phase of your stroke should not be dominated by elbow extension, but rather by body roll coupled with the upward motion of your slightly flexed elbow.
The Recovery 回復原狀
As you lift your arm out of the water, increase the bend in your elbow. Continue keeping your elbow higher than your hand, and lead the arm swing forward with your elbow. Point your fingers backward and allow them to trail behind until you are midway through your recovery. At this point your fingers should take over the lead. Your hand should enter the water at a 30- to 45-degree angle, thumbs facing downward, to begin again with the catch.
Freestyle Breathing 捷泳的換氣
Head Position 頭部的位置
Between inhalations, hold your head so the waterline is at mid-forehead level. Exhale easily but steadily from your nose and mouth. When turning your head to breathe, maintain a straight line between the top of your head and the base of your spine.
Your shoulder should roll up and back when you stroke. When breathing on your stroking side, simply follow your shoulder back with your chin. Inhale as soon as your mouth clears the water. Your body should already be rolling back to the other side. Your chin will lead your shoulder as your face returns to the water.
TIP Bilateral breathing, often called alternate-side breathing, requires you to change breathing sides after each stroke cycle. This skill eliminates neck and shoulder fatigue and promotes better balance and body alignment. Bilateral breathing is an essential navigational skill in open water, too.
Freestyle Drills 捷泳練習
Like many people who want to swim faster, you may be tempted to increase your arm turnover in an effort to increase your speed. Sounds logical. But when you look over at the fastest swimmers at your pool, they seem to be moving their arms slower than you are, not faster. What’s going on here?
The secret to faster swimming lies not in making your stroke faster, but in making it longer. Single-arm drills are a great way for swimmers, especially uncoached swimmers, to increase the length and efficiency of their stroke.
By stroking with only one arm at a time, you can examine each part of your stroke sequence in minute detail. This will allow you to uncover technique flaws as well as strength imbalances between your left and right sides.
When doing single-arm drills, begin your pull by flexing your wrist and digging down for the bottom of the pool. If you are using your right arm, you will breathe on your right side. When? As your right hand finishes its stroke at your thigh. You should be looking at a point between the 12 o’clock and 2 o’clock positions when breathing on your right side and between the 10 o’clock and 12o’clock positions when breathing on your left side. By learning to limit your head turn, you will keep your body in a more fluid position and waste a lot less energy. (See illustrations on page 12.)
Count the number of strokes you take per length of the pool. If you take fewer strokes with one arm than you do with the other, you’ve uncovered a strength imbalance. You’ll want to spend more of your drill time on your “ weak” side than your “strong” side.
In addition to the one lap left /one lap right single-arm drill sequence, you can do three strokes right/three strokes left, followed by two right/two left, one right/one left, then back up the “ladder.” You also can alternate between right- and left-arm strokes with a momentary pause in between. This is known as catch-up swimming, a staple of many competitive swim programs. (picture single-arm drill)
除了單臂左邊(或單臂右邊)持續練習外，也可以右臂划三次，換左臂划三次；接著右兩次，左兩次；右一次左一次，再回到右三左三的 ”階梯式練法” 。你也可以在左右划手交換之間做一個停頓，這就像catch-up游法一樣眾所皆知，這是很多競賽練習課程的主要訓練方法。
Thumbsies (zipper drill: thumb goes to your armpit; then extend arm. Forward: keeping contact through motion)拇指觸划體側訓練
This drill is especially helpful for swimmers who have difficulty with the finishing stage of their strokes – the recovery. Thumbsies – a drill in which you literally drag the thumb of your trailing arm along the body from mid-thigh up through the armpit – is also good for teaching you to make your hands enter the water in front of your shoulder. If one of your hands has a tendency to enter the water beyond the mid-line of your body, causing you to zig-zag down your lane, thumbsies may be a big help.